Skip to main content

Table 4 Comparison with the R5 Loop and Tail Solar Model with Geomagnetic, Biological and Geological Events (Sources: Young and Laurie, 1996 ; Haq and Schutter, 2008 ; Sepkoski’s Compendium, 2002 )

From: The Sun-Earth connect 3: lessons from the periodicities of deep time influencing sea-level change and marine extinctions in the geological record

Phase Phase time Ma Event limit Geological time Biological and Geological Event
   31.0 Rupelian C12  
H 16 34.5    • Commencement of Antarctic Glaciation
• Mass Extinction (34-23Ma: 21% Genera)
E 1 46.1 46.6 Lutetian C21 • Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Max
(Phase 1 13.2Ma Loop) 56.0 55.0   • Mass Extinction (55.8-33.9:Ma 31% Genera)
E 2 65.9 65.5 29R Maastrichtian • N-R Polarity Reversal
• Major Cretaceous/ Tertiary Extinction (65.5Ma: 47% Genera)
W 19 92.7 83 Cenomanian-Turonia • Extinction (94-89Ma: 27% Genera)
• Cretaceous Warming Maximum
H 19 118.7 119 Aptian Cretaceous Normal Polarity Superchron • Extinction (125-112Ma: 19% Genera)
    M3r Barremian • R-N Polarity Reversal (119Ma-83Ma)
E 3 131.9 131 M11r Valanginian Late Jurassic Warm Period
W 20 158.3   Meneghinii • Late Jurassic Extinction (161-150Ma: 19%-32% Genera)
H 20 184.7 184.6 Toarcian Extinction (183-177Ma: 24% Genera)
E 4 197.9 195 Jamesoni • Major Triassic Extinction (200Ma: 63% Genera)
Triassic /Jurassic Cold Period
• N-R Polarity Flip
W 21 224.3   Norian • Norian Extinction (228Ma: Genera 39%)
• Triassic Warm Maximum
H 21 250.7 252 Dorashamiam/Changsing • Second Major Permian Extinction (260-251Ma: 71% Genera)
• N-R Polarity Reversal
• Major Orogenic Events
Pflaazian, Palatinian, Sonoma 251 ± 5Ma
• Phanerozoic sea-level minimum (−40m MSL)
Anoxic interval 260–250 Ma
E 5 263.9 262 Midian • First Major Permian Extinction (271-260Ma: 56% Genera)
End of Permo-Carboniferous Reverse Superchron • Reverse Superchron (305Ma-263Ma)
• Phanerozoic sea-level minimum (−60m MSL)
W 22 290.3    • Extinction (280-271Ma: 33% Genera)
• Phanerozoic sea-level change (+100m) Permian Warm Period
H 22 316.7   Narmurian • Extinction (325-314Ma: 38% Genera)
• Early Whichita Orogeny 318 ± 5Ma
• Late Whichita Orogeny 310 ± 5Ma
• Phanerozoic sea-level minimum (−70m MSL)
E 6 329.9 325 Visean • Glaciation Commences ~330Ma
• Major Orogenic Events: Sudetian Orogeny 325 ± 5Ma
• Extinction (45% Genera)
W 23 356.3 354 Famennian • Famennian Extinction (375-359Ma: 49% Genera)
• Devonian Warm Maximum (356 Ma)
Svalbardian Orogeny 360Ma ± 5
Antler Orogeny 364Ma ± 5
H 23 382.7 378 Frasnian • Frasian Mass Extinction (383-374Ma: 54% Genera)
• Polar Reversal N-R (378Ma- 356Ma)
• Glaciation ~380Ma
• Anoxic interval (380 & 360 Ma)
E 7 395.9 390 Eifelian • Extinction (398-392Ma: 38% Genera)
• Major Orogenic Events:
Ebrian 400Ma
Hibernian 403Ma
W 24 422.1   Ludlow • Extinction (423-419Ma: 40% Genera)
• Phanerozoic sea-level maximum (+200m)
H 24 448.7 451 (N/R) Ashgill • Second Major Ordovican Extinction (449–444 Ma: 61% Genera)
• Magnetic (N-R) reversal 451Ma
Taconian Orogeny 449 ± 5Ma
• Anoxic Interval-443Ma
E 8 461.9   Caradoc End Mayero Reverse Superchron • First Major Ordovician Extinction (458-449Ma: 44% Genera)
Arenig • End Superchron (486Ma-465Ma)
• Sardininian Orogeny (461.9 ± 5Ma)
• Phanerozoic sea-level minimum(460Ma)
W 25 488.0 486 Begin Mayero Reverse Superchron • Cambrian/Ordovician Extinction (490-485Ma: 57% Genera)
Tremandoc • Delhi Orogeny (488 ± 5Ma)
• Begin Superchron (486Ma-465Ma)
• Ordovician Warm Maximum (488Ma)
• Anoxic Interval (26Ma of Anoxic Conditions (514.7Ma to 488Ma)
• Phanerozoic sea-level maximum (+240m)
H 25 514.7 511 Precedes Upper Toyonian limit • Second Cambrian Extinction (520-513Ma:74% Genera)
• Pampean Orogeny (514.7Ma ± 5)
• PolarityFlip (R-N)
E 9 527.9 528 Lower Toyanian Boundary • First Cambrian Extinction (530-520Ma: 62% Genera)