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Table 1 Clinical characteristics of study participants at the beginning and end of the follow-up period

From: Metabolic control in type 1 diabetes patients practicing combat sports: at least two-year follow-up study

Patient number 1 2 3 4 5
Sex (M-male, F-female) M M M M M
Age at the onset of follow-up (years) 18 23 34 26 31
Diabetes duration at the onset of follow-up (years) 7 13 12 9 18
Sport type MMA Kick-boxing Kick-boxing MMA MMA
Duration of sport practice (years) 4 7 12 9 14
Diabetes treatment method (MDI/CSII) MDI CSII MDI CSII MDI
Duration of the follow-up (months) 25 38 24 36 35
HbA1c at the beginning of the follow-up (%, mmol/mol) 8.4 (68) 8.2 (66) 8.6 (70) 7.6 (60) 7.9 (63)
HbA1c at the end of the follow-up 7.8 (62) 7.6 (60) 7.4 (57) 7.3 (56) 7.1 (54)
Mean glucose level from glucometer memory at the beginning of the follow-up (mg/dL) with standard deviation (mg/dL) 198 ± 84 189 ± 92 212 ± 89 174 ± 76 182 ± 81
Mean glucose level from glucometer memory at the end of the follow-up (mg/dL) with standard deviation (mg/dL) 179 ± 62 171 ± 68 163 ± 64 152 ± 52 139 ± 63
Number of symptomatic hypoglycemia/week at the beginning of the follow-up (4 weeks data) 8.1 10.1 8.7 6.2 12.3
Number of symptomatic hypoglycemia/week at the end of the follow-up (4 weeks data) 4.2 6.0 2.1 4.2 6.1
Number of hospitalizations due to metabolic decompensation (severe hypoglycemia or acidosis) during the 2 years prior to the beginning of follow-up 0 3 1 0 1
Number of hospitalizations due to metabolic decompensation (severe hypoglycemia or acidosis) during follow-up 0 0 0 0 0
Mean number of BG measurements/day at the beginning of follow-up 3.1 4.2 2.9 5.4 6.1
Mean number of BG measurements/day at the end of follow-up 10.2 9.1 8.1 9.3 12.4
Total daily insulin dose/kg at the beginning of follow-up (IU/kg) 0.71 0.57 0.68 0.53 0.55
Total daily insulin dose at the end of follow-up (IU/kg) 0.55 0.53 0.51 0.52 0.47
% Prandial insulin at the beginning of follow-up 46 53 58 62 66
% of total daily insulin amount given as prandial doses at the end of the follow-up 56 58 62 66 68
  1. Grey background: data from the onset of the follow-up.
  2. White background: data from the end of the follow-up.
  3. Abbreviations used are: mixed martial arts (MMA), multiple daily injections (MDI), continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), blood glucose (BG).