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Table 4 Correlation matrix between grub density (all species), Phyllopertha horticola density and environmental and management variables

From: Phyllopertha horticola (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) larvae in eastern Austrian mountainous grasslands and the associated damage risk related to soil, topography and management

  Grub density P. horticola Humus N min DOC pH-H 2 O Clay Silt Sand A-horizon Humus eBOD Water supply Altitude Slope Aspect Cuts Grazings Manure amount
Grub density 1                  
P. horticola 1.00 ** 1                 
Humus 0.46* 0.46* 1                
Nmin 0.36 0.36 0.55* 1               
DOC 0.29 0.30 0.49* 0.13 1              
pH-H2O −0.17 −0.15 0.40 t 0.23 −0.11 1             
Clay −0.14 −0.13 0.27 −0.23 0.14 0.16 1            
Silt −0.31 −0.30 0.25 0.04 −0.17 0.27 0.50* 1           
Sand 0.27 0.26 −0.29 0.09 0.04 −0.25 −0.83** −0.90** 1          
A-horizon 0.37 0.37 −0.23 −0.09 −0.45* −0.07 −0.50* −0.27 0.43 1         
Humus eBOD 0.37 0.36 0.45* 0.49* 0.07 0.16 −0.02 0.42 −0.26 0.10 1        
Water supply −0.04 −0.05 0.13 −0.13 0.01 −0.20 0.13 0.11 −0.12 −0.21 0.29 1       
Altitude −0.06 −0.05 0.14 −0.14 0.01 0.48* 0.24 0.01 −0.11 0.07 −0.01 −0.17 1      
Slope 0.08 0.06 0.17 0.10 0.22 0.20 0.25 −0.00 −0.12 −0.20 0.06 0.10 0.22 1     
Aspect −0.09 −0.09 −0.31 0.02 −0.06 −0.59* 0.90 0.06 −0.09 0.05 −0.15 0.01 −0.26 −0.17 1    
Cuts −0.06 −0.08 0.03 0.02 −0.36 0.13 −0.06 0.05 −0.01 0.07 0.15 0.16 0.07 −0.31 −0.25 1   
Grazings 0.09 0.09 −0.06 −0.31 0.50 * −0.34 0.12 0.10 −0.09 −0.05 −0.10 0.07 0.01 0.47* 0.14 −0.56* 1  
Manure amount −0.22 −0.23 0.03 0.13 −0.37 0.53* −0.01 −0.05 0.03 0.08 0.02 −0.24 0.26 −0.37 −0.55* 0.51* −0.61** 1
  1. The correlation coefficients were calculated across all sites according to Pearson or Spearman in case of the variables “water supply”, “cuts” = usual number of cuts per year, “grazings” = usual number of grazings per year and usual “manure amount” per year. Significant coefficients are marked: * = 0.05 ≥ p > 0.01, ** = p ≤ 0.01. For the definition of parameters see Table 3.