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Table 3 Comparison of the “undamaged” and the “damaged” sites regarding grub density, environment and management; site categories: “undamaged site” = grub damage had never been observed by the farmers (low risk) and “damaged sites” = grub damage had recently occurred (high risk)

From: Phyllopertha horticola (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) larvae in eastern Austrian mountainous grasslands and the associated damage risk related to soil, topography and management

Site categories   Undamaged sites (= low risk)   Damaged sites (= high risk)
  Minimum Maximum Mean/median +/− SEM Minimum Maximum Mean/median +/− SEM
Grubs (all species) per m2** 1.04 95.83 30.83 10.47 26.04 303.13 117.63 27.16
Grub damages 2011 (ord) 0 0 0 / 0 1 1 /
Humus (%) t 4.57 11.95 8.13 0.72 5.89 12.53 9.93 0.67
Nmin (kg/ha) 5.00 36.00 11.90 2.81 7.00 24.00 13.20 1.50
DOC (kg/ha)* 48.00 238.00 102.80 17.07 86.00 273.00 154.20 21.96
pH-H2O 5.16 6.13 5.53 0.10 5.15 5.75 5.49 0.06
Clay (%) 13.08 21.10 15.94 0.74 11.90 22.83 16.44 1.03
Silt (%) 29.60 42.58 34.39 1.27 27.95 38.31 33.15 1.00
sand (%) 41.06 57.26 49.65 1.81 38.86 56.78 50.39 1.75
A-horizon max. (cm) eBOD 20.00 30.00 24 1.25 15.00 30.00 24 2.21
Humus db (%) eBOD 2.20 4.90 3.34 0.31 2.20 5.10 3.79 0.35
Water supply (ord) eBOD 3.00 7.00 5 / 3.00 5.00 5 /
Altitude above sealevel (m) 838.86 1103.99 983.68 25.68 850.93 1094.65 966.47 24.67
Slope (degrees) 4.92 22.24 13.03 1.71 3.07 24.13 14.53 1.85
Aspect (degrees) 3.19 169.62 66.55 15.21 2.32 147.28 74.86 17.01
Usual number of cuts/year* 1.00 4.00 2.10 0.23 0.00 2.00 1.40 0.22
Usual number of grazings/year 0.00 2.00 1.00 0.15 1.00 4.00 1.60 0.40
Usual manure amount/year (ord) 1.00 3.00 1.5 / 0.00 3.00 1 /
  1. For parametric data the means (+/− SEM = standard error of the mean), in case of ordinal parameters (ord) the medians were calculated. Significant differences between the two site categories are indicated by: ** = p ≤ 0.01, * = 0.05 ≥ p > 0.01, t = 0.1 ≥ p > 0.05 trend. The p-values were calculated by t-tests or Mann Whitney U-tests in case of ordinal variables. Parameters: The soil parameters were analysed from soil samples (0 – 10 cm), except the parameters marked by “eBOD” which were read from a soil database (eBOD, 2013); “DOC” = dissolved organic carbon, “A-horizon max”. = maximum depth of the A-horizon, “water supply” (1 = very low to 7 = very high), “aspect” = deviation from facing south (180 degrees), “usual manure amount / year” (0 = no to 3 = much).