Rapamycin changes significantly the expression of genes involved in the ER stress pathway only in females. The effect of dietary restriction (DR) and rapamycin (Rapa) on the expression of genes involved in the ER stress pathway was measured in liver samples from female (A) and male (B) mice. The data were obtained from 6 male and 8 female mice per group and expressed as mean ± SEM. An asterisk denotes those values that are significantly different (p ≤ 0.05) from AL mice. Open bars: AL; solid bars: DR; Gray bars: Rapa 14 ppm.