Rapamycin changed the expression of gene related to proteolytic pathways like dietary restriction only in female. The effect of dietary restriction (DR) and Rapamycin (Rapa), on the expression of genes related to ubiquitin-proteasome (A and B) and autophagy (C and D) pathways was measured in liver samples of male (B and D) and female (A and C) mice. The data were obtained from 6 male and 8 female mice per group and expressed as mean ± SEM. An asterisk denotes those values that are significantly different (p ≤ 0.05) from AL mice. Open bars: AL; solid bars: DR; Gray bars: Rapa 14 ppm.