In female but not male mice, rapamycin and dietary restriction alter the expression of circadian rhythm genes similarly. The effect of dietary restriction (DR) and rapamycin (Rapa) on the expression of circadian rhythm genes was measured in liver samples from female (A) and male (B) mice. Open bars: AL; solid bars: DR; Gray bars: Rapa 14 ppm. The data were obtained from 6 male and 8 female mice per group and expressed as mean ± SEM. An asterisk denotes those values that are significantly different (p ≤ 0.05) from AL mice.