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Table 3 Muscle strength, physical functions, and muscle cross-sectional area values before and after the intervention

From: Daily consumption of milk fat globule membrane plus habitual exercise improves physical performance in healthy middle-aged adults

   Placebo MFGM ANOVA (G × T)
P -value
Knee extension, kg baseline 32.2 ± 3.1 34.1 ± 3.2 0.642
5 weeks 33.3 ± 3.1 35.9 ± 3.6
10 weeks 33.8 ± 3.2 37.1 ± 3.8
Δ 10 weeks (%)a 6.0 ± 4.0 9.7 ± 3.4d
Leg extension, Nm baseline 102.9 ± 9.6 97.4 ± 8.6 0.567
5 weeks 108.4 ± 11.0 102.0 ± 8.8
10 weeks 107.1 ± 10.6 103.8 ± 8.4
Δ 10 weeks (%)a 4.2 ± 2.6 6.4 ± 2.0d
Side step test, times baseline 32.5 ± 1.6 32.3 ± 1.5 0.047
5 weeks 33.5 ± 1.6 34.3 ± 1.5b
10 weeks 33.3 ± 1.6 34.4 ± 1.5b
Δ 10 weeks (%)a 2.4 ± 1.3 6.8 ± 1.6c d
Chair stand test, sec baseline 5.7 ± 0.4 5.9 ± 0.4 0.590
5 weeks 5.6 ± 0.3 5.5 ± 0.4
10 weeks 5.4 ± 0.4 5.3 ± 0.4
Δ 10 weeks (%)a - 4.6 ± 3.3 - 10.4 ± 2.3d
Muscle CSA, cm2 baseline 129.2 ± 7.4 116.2 ± 5.7 0.025
10 weeks 129.4 ± 7.0 120.6 ± 5.7b
Δ 10 weeks (%)a 0.4 ± 1.0 4.0 ± 1.1c, d
  1. MFGM, milk fat globule membrane; ANOVA, analysis of variance; CSA, cross-sectional area.
  2. Values are means ± SEM of 16 (placebo group [women, n = 7; men, n = 9]) and 19 (MFGM group [women, n = 11; men, n = 8]) subjects.
  3. aThe value is the percentage change from the baseline to 10 weeks. Repeated-measures ANOVA for the group-by-time interaction (G × T) during the interventional period. bThere was a significant difference from the baseline during the interventional period, as determined using the Bonferroni test (P < 0.05). cThere was a significant difference between the two groups in results of the unpaired t-test (P < 0.05).dThere was a significant difference from the baseline to 10 weeks in results of the paired t-test (P < 0.05).