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Table 2 Comparison of baseline sociodemographic, economic, sexual risk behavior, dietary intake, clinical, mental health, gender empowerment, clinical and laboratory findings of participants enrolled in Shamba Maisha at the intervention and control sites

From: Shamba Maisha: Pilot agricultural intervention for food security and HIV health outcomes in Kenya: design, methods, baseline results and process evaluation of a cluster-randomized controlled trial

  Intervention Control P-value
  N = 72 N = 68  
Sociodemographic variables n (%) n (%)  
Mean age in years (SE) 37 (0.80) 38 (0.80) 0.16
Female gender 37 (51) 35 (51) 0.92
Education ≥ secondary school 14 (19) 12 (18) 0.82
Current married 54 (75) 54 (79) 0.25
Mean number of people in household (SE) 6 (0.2) 7 (0.3) 0.12
Food security level    
Moderately food insecure 14 (20) 14 (21) 0.86
Severely food insecure 57 (80) 53 (78) 0.86
Body Mass Index (BMI) <18.5 13 (18) 5 (7) 0.054
Economic indicators    
Mean (SE) Monthly Household Income (USD*) 104 (21.3) 273 (53.1) 0.008
Land ownership (Self or Jointly) 60 (83) 49 (73) 0.14
Sexual risk behavior    
Any unprotected sex 13 (18) 12 (18) 0.95
Sex exchange (ever) 15 (21) 28 (41) 0.009
Sex exchange (last 3 months) 2 (3) 6 (9) 0.12
>1 Sexual partners in the past 3 months 9 (13) 9 (13) 0.92
Dietary intake (frequency of consumption - times/week)    
Grains mean (SE) 19.0 (0.8) 20.8(0.8) 0.1320
Vege`s mean (SE) 20.3 (0.9) 25.9 (0.7) <0.0001
Fruit mean (SE) 9.0 (0.6) 10.6 (0.9) 0.1352
Meat, Poultry mean (SE) 3.4 (0.3) 5.3 (0.3) <0.00001
Eggs mean (SE) 0.9 (0.1) 1.3 (0.2) 0.117
Dairy mean (SE) 1.9 (0.3) 4.5 (0.5) <0.0001
Cooking fat mean (SE) 5.0 (0.3) 6.8 (0.1) <0.00001
Sweets mean (SE) 7.1 (0.7) 11.9 (0.7) <0.00001
Mental health    
Depression score ≥1.75 (clinical depression) 1 (1) 4 (6) 0.2
Mental health summary score (SE) 57.1 (3.4) 42.8 (5.6) 0.15
Mean internalized AIDS related stigma scale (SE) 14.1 (0.2) 13.7 (0.2) 0.19
Disclosed to husband/wife/partner 65 (97) 63 (95) 0.68
Mean Social Support Score (SE) 53.4 (10.8) 35.8 (8.3) 0.2
Problem drinking based on audit C 1 (1) 2 (3) 0.53
Gender empowerment    
Mean sexual relationship power scale (women only) (SE) 54 (10) 47 (8) 0.59
Mean decision making dominance scale (SE) 46 (5) 42 (4) 0.46
Clinical, Laboratory and antiretroviral (ART) adherence    
WHO clinical stage 3 or 4 15 (21) 22 (33) 0.12
Median CD4 (IQR) cells/mm3 446 (330–629) 475 (356–679) 0.33
Baseline CD4 ≤ 350 cells/mm3 20 (29) 16 (24) 0.467
Viral load above the limit of detection (≥20 copies/mL) 34 (49) 19 (28) 0.010
Physical health summary score (SE) 54.3 (3.6) 45.5 (4.0) 0.03
Hospitalized in the last three months 3 (4) 5 (7) 0.4
Reported ART adherence per Visual Analogue Scale < 90% 0 (0) 6 (9) 0.01
  1. *Converted Kenyan shillings (Ksh) to US dollar (85 Ksh/$).