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Table 4 Multivariate analysis of variance of culture, grade and diagnosis, before and after correcting for the effect of Word Lexicon and educational level of the parents as covariates (total group)

From: Differences in neurocognitive aspects of dyslexia in Dutch and immigrant 6-7- and 8-9-years old children

  Culture Grade Diagnosis
  Correction Correction Correction
DST subtest Before After Before After Before After
Naming Pictures .01 .01 .00 .00 .02* .01
Naming letters .02* .00 .00 .00 .05*** .05***
One-Min. Reading .00 .00 .04*** .04*** .18*** .18***
Phon. Segment. 1 .01 .00 .00 .00 .03** .03**
Phon. Segment. 2 .01 .00 .00 .00 .06*** .06***
Two-Min. Spelling .00 .01 .00 .00 .10*** .09***
Backw. Digit Span .00 .03** .02* .01* .00 .00
Nons. Pass. Reading .00 .00 .00 .00 .13*** .12***
Non-Word Reading .00 .00 .00 .00 .27*** .24***
One-Minute Writing .00 .00 .01 .01 .08*** .07***
Verbal Fluency .01 .02** .00 .00 .01 .01
Semantic Fluency .03** .00 .00 .00 .00 .00
PLQ .00 .00 .00 .00 .18*** .16***
  1. *p<.05. **p<.01. ***p<.001.