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Table 4 Summary of participants’ qualitative responses

From: The perceptions of pre-service and in-service teachers regarding a project-based STEM approach to teaching science

Research question Participants’ response Frequency (N = 46) Percentage
1 What were participants’ reflection on STEM-PjBL approach?
  A fun, interesting, enjoyable and exciting approach 28 61.9
  Attract students’ interest and attention 23 50.0
  Offers opportunities to be creative 15 33.6
  Positive applicability and suitability of STEM-PjBL in learning Science 12 26.1
  Increased motivation to learn 8 17.4
  Supports learning about environmental values 7 15.2
  Developing problem solving skills 3 6.5
2 What benefits were gained by teachers through engaging with the workshop?
  Acquired new experience for making Science classrooms more effective 19 41.3
  Recognizing the interdisciplinary nature of STEM-PjBL approach 15 32.6
  Opening up one’s mind to designing and making science-based toys 10 21.7
  Fostering creativity and thinking skills 6 13.0
  Inspired to teach in an innovative way 5 10.9
3 What challenges did teachers face as they engage with the workshop?   
  Insufficient time to complete tasks 20 43.5
  Lack of subject matter knowledge in a STEM-related field 12 26.1
  Unexpected conditions that contributed to unsuccessful outcomes 10 21.7
  Language as a communication barrier 7 15.2
4 What challenges [C] would teachers potentially face in implementing a STEM-PjBL approach in their classrooms? What suggestions [S] would they offer to overcome these challenges?   
  [C] Inadequate materials and facilities   
   Difficulty in obtaining experimental materials 44 95.7
   Rural school laboratories lack equipment provision 23 50.0
  [S] Using readily available recycled or easier accessed materials 44 95.7
  [C] A large amount of experimental materials to cope with large class 17 36.9
  [S] Conducting activities in smaller groups 17 36.9
   Students and school stakeholders take their own initiatives to obtain relevant materials. 42 91.3
  [C] Classroom time constraints 40 86.9
  [S] Carrying out STEM-PjBL lessons after school hours 40 86.9
  [C] Lack of expertise/knowledge in STEM-PjBL related projects 30 65.2
  [S] Exposing teachers to STEM-PjBL training 30 65.2
  [C] Teaching preparation for less interested students 8 17.4
  [S] Planning in advance the activities, materials and apparatus 8 17.4
  [C] Cost constraints 43 93.4
  [S] Doing group activities 23 50.0
   Getting financial support from Ministry of Education 20 43.4
5 What would motivate teachers in applying a STEM-PjBL approach in teaching science in their own classes?   
  Able to enhance the understanding of science content 20 43.5
  Learning by doing 14 30.4
  Exposure to real life problems 10 21.7
  Able to foster learners’ multiple intelligences 10 21.7