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Table 1 Characteristics of the included studies

From: A meta-analysis of efficacy and tolerability of buprenorphine for the relief of cancer pain

First author, publication year Country Features of RCT Sample size (M; F) Mean age Route Comparator drugs Outcome measurement Remarks
Aurilio 2009 Italy Cross-over 32 (7:15) 62 (42-78) TD TD fentanyl VAS, PPI, PRI ITT
Bohme 2003 Austria, Germany, Hungary Multicenter 151 (70:81) 60.6 (± 12.2) TD Placebo VRS, responder Complete enriched; mixed with non-cancer & cancer patients
Bono 1997 Italy Cross-over 60 (44:16) 61.4 (40-84) SL Oral tramadol VAS, KSI Non-English
Brema 1996 Italy Multicenter 131 (86:45)   SL Oral tramadol VAS, KSI Non-English
De Conno 1987 Italy Cross-over 91   SL Oral pentazocine Pain relief, KSI Non-English
Dini 1986 Italy Single centre 42 (21;21) 0.3 mg SL & IM Oral pentazocine & IM pentazocine Pain reduction. PI Non-English
Kjaer 1982 Denmark Single centre 27 (13:14) 60 (41-71) IM IM morphine Pain reduction  
Likar 2007 Austria Cross-over, open label 17 61.6 (±11.5) TD TD buprenorphine (4day vs 3 day regimen) PI A subset of cancer patients
Noda 1989 Japan Single centre 30 range: 25-72 SC & IM Placebo VAS  
Pace 2007 Italy Open label 52 (27:15) 55 (± 2.6) TD Morphine PI Non-enriched
Poulain 2008   Multicenter 189 63 (33-83) TD Placebo PI Enriched; calculated sample size
Sittl 2003 Austria, Germany, Netherland Multicenter, multidose 157 (71:86) 58.7 (±11.8) TD Placebo Pain relief, PI, satisfaction 3 dosage of TD
Sorge 2004 Germany, Poland Multicenter, multidose 137 56 (±12.1) TD Placebo VRS, Complete enriched; 33% cancer patients
Taguchi 1982 Japan Cross-over 31   IM IM pentazocine PI Non- English
Ventafridda 1983 Italy Cross-over 60 (42:18) >18 SL Oral pentazocine VAS, PI VAS
Wirz 2009 Germany Multidrug 174 (98:76) 65.3 (±10.7) TD Oral hydromorphone PI, rescue Prospective
  1. non-English: non-English language publication; ITT: intention-to-treat analysis; IM : intramuscular injection; KSI: NRS: PPI: PRI: Pain rating index; SC: subcutaneous administration; SL: sublingual administration; TD: transdermal administration; rescue: requirement of rescue drug; VAS: VRS, : Mean age: Mean age in year (±SD or range); cross-over: cross-over studies; multidrug: more than 1 comparator drug; Responders; a composite scale; PI: pain intensity.