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Table 5 Race times (s) of the finalists (mean ± SD) at the World Championships 1994–2013 with correlation coefficient and effect size

From: Change of the age and performance of swimmers across World Championships and Olympic Games finals from 1992 to 2013 – a cross-sectional data analysis

Sex Stroke Distance 1994 1998 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 2011 2013 r-value Effect size
Women Freestyle 50 m 25.32 ± 0.40 25.60 ± 0.31 25.09 ± 0.37 25.13 ± 0.32 25.05 ± 0.30 24.84 ± 0.24 24.07 ± 0.23 24.56 ± 0.24 24.48 ± 0.29 -0.86 12.28
  100 m 55.12 ± 0.73 55.57 ± 0.64 55.12 ± 0.41 54.76 ± 0.23 54.80 ± 0.30 54.05 ± 0.47 53.16 ± 0.56 53.77 ± 0.29 53.53 ± 0.69 -0.90 18.00
  200 m 119.26 ± 1.83 120.07 ± 0.70 119.14 ± 0.41 118.99 ± 0.53 119.18 ± 0.43 117.78 ± 1.97 115.80 ± 1.36 116.70 ± 0.88 116.43 ± 1.06 -0.88 14.66
  400 m 251.77 ± 1.67 249.88 ± 2.22 250.78 ± 2.47 249.59 ± 2.72 247.93 ± 1.22 245.69 ± 1.70 242.73 ± 2.64 245.41 ± 2.48 245.60 ± 2.17 -0.88 14.66
  800 m 514.70 ± 5.02 515.64 ± 6.42 513.93 ± 6.36 512.19 ± 8.04 512.05 ± 5.22 507.35 ± 6.06 501.25 ± 5.28 505.03 ± 5.51 503.29 ± 7.73 -0.92 23.00
  1500 m - - 979.34 ± 14.31 974.10 ± 8.43 974.07 ± 8.79 971.97 ± 17.20 959.95 ± 11.19 962.75 ± 7.63 954.73 ± 12.84 -0.95 38.00
  Breaststroke 100 m 70.04 ± 1.15 68.76 ± 0.26 68.65 ± 0.84 68.09 ± 0.83 67.72 ± 0.93 67.62 ± 1.16 66.05 ± 0.69 66.79 ± 0.91 66.11 ± 1.06 -0.95 38.00
  200 m 149.00 ± 1.41 147.42 ± 1.71 145.91 ± 1.02 146.28 ± 2.02 147.10 ± 2.43 146.56 ± 2.20 142.58 ± 0.77 144.80 ± 1.97 142.57 ± 1.94 -0.85 11.33
  Backstroke 100 m 61.64 ± 0.77 61.96 ± 0.60 61.60 ± 0.76 61.16 ± 0.39 61.08 ± 0.49 60.71 ± 0.98 59.05 ± 0.62 59.43 ± 0.41 59.50 ± 0.61 -0.91 20.22
  200 m 131.94 ± 2.88 132.81 ± 1.21 131.42 ± 1.23 131.13 ± 1.77 131.16 ± 1.54 129.57 ± 1.64 126.98 ± 1.53 127.68 ± 1.39 128.34 ± 2.15 -0.90 18.00
  Butterfly 100 m 60.42 ± 0.84 59.32 ± 0.65 59.25 ± 0.58 58.81 ± 0.59 58.56 ± 0.82 58.13 ± 0.79 56.83 ± 0.52 57.41 ± 0.42 57.56 ± 0.64 -0.93 26.57
  200 m 131.74 ± 3.24 130.81 ± 2.24 129.06 ± 1.57 129.28 ± 1.79 129.12 ± 2.19 128.45 ± 2.41 124.75 ± 0.98 126.08 ± 0.42 126.30 ± 1.33 -0.91 20.22
  Medley 200 m 135.63 ± 1.61 134.84 ± 1.91 133.62 ± 1.27 133.93 ± 1.77 133.65 ± 1.97 133.19 ± 2.10 128.75 ± 1.67 130.73 ± 2.40 130.28 ± 1.30 -0.88 14.66
  400 m 284.17 ± 3.48 282.01 ± 4.19 281.91 ± 3.91 282.79 ± 4.04 281.68 ± 2.77 281.83 ± 4.32 274.20 ± 2.82 275.36 ± 2.22 274.04 ± 3.28 -0.87 13.38
Men Freestyle 50 m 22.62 ± 0.25 22.54 ± 0.19 22.28 ± 0.14 22.29 ± 0.16 22.12 ± 0.26 22.05 ± 0.13 21.36 ± 0.16 21.92 ± 0.17 21.62 ± 0.19 -0.89 16.18
  100 m 49.79 ± 0.39 49.62 ± 0.44 48.96 ± 0.44 49.02 ± 0.42 48.72 ± 0.46 48.56 ± 0.14 47.40 ± 0.38 48.05 ± 0.21 48.05 ± 0.30 -0.90 18.0
  200 m 108.79 ± 0.77 109.39 ± 1.12 107.55 ± 1.88 107.87 ± 1.52 107.03 ± 1.23 106.99 ± 1.53 104.73 ± 1.53 105.63 ± 1.18 105.86 ± 0.90 -0.89 16.18
  400 m 229.96 ± 3.11 229.04 ± 2.21 227.20 ± 4.53 227.55 ± 2.87 226.80 ± 2.37 226.43 ± 1.61 223.75 ± 2.73 224.70 ± 1.65 226.24 ± 2.57 -0.85 11.33
  800 m 483.03 ± 7.51 482.94 ± 5.02 472.20 ± 8.18 475.49 ± 7.21 470.80 ± 7.70 471.36 ± 3.55 463.10 ± 6.48 465.86 ± 4.96 466.99 ± 4.42 -0.89 16.18
  1500 m 911.14 ± 13.18 909.55 ± 11.26 904.14 ± 13.64 904.83 ± 10.17 897.97 ± 12.25 895.01 ± 7.19 893.29 ± 13.28 894.98 ± 16.20 892.54 ± 9.69 -0.95 38.00
  Breaststroke 100 m 61.84 ± 0.41 62.16 ± 0.54 61.06 ± 0.68 60.79 ± 0.61 60.46 ± 0.74 60.73 ± 0.63 59.06 ± 0.33 59.84 ± 0.59 59.61 ± 0.48 -0.90 18.00
  200 m 134.25 ± 0.99 134.36 ± 0.93 131.65 ± 0.89 131.89 ± 1.39 131.91 ± 0.99 131.31 ± 0.73 128.44 ± 0.95 129.94 ± 1.21 129.02 ± 0.88 -0.91 20.22
  Backstroke 100 m 55.73 ± 0.30 55.41 ± 0.38 55.14 ± 0.52 54.39 ± 0.57 54.40 ± 0.46 53.98 ± 0.70 52.79 ± 0.36 53.07 ± 0.25 53.47 ± 0.43 -0.93 26.57
  200 m 119.42 ± 1.05 119.91 ± 0.78 118.90 ± 1.01 117.85 ± 0.91 117.49 ± 1.50 117.12 ± 1.95 114.43 ± 1.59 116.01 ± 1.84 115.52 ± 1.49 -0.91 20.22
  Butterfly 100 m 53.96 ± 0.38 53.12 ± 0.48 52.62 ± 0.39 51.94 ± 0.71 52.32 ± 0.95 51.93 ± 0.75 50.75 ± 0.67 51.61 ± 0.55 51.49 ± 0.19 -0.87 13.38
  200 m 118.62 ± 1.21 118.23 ± 1.37 116.20 ± 1.28 116.54 ± 1.50 116.66 ± 0.94 115.51 ± 1.69 114.09 ± 1.34 114.81 ± 0.77 115.54 ± 0.72 -0.86 12.28
  Medley 200 m 122.20 ± 2.06 122.63 ± 1.54 121.26 ± 0.81 119.98 ± 1.79 119.63 ± 1.96 118.33 ± 2.03 116.52 ± 1.76 117.44 ± 2.18 117.28 ± 1.49 -0.95 38.00
  400 m 257.88 ± 3.82 258.53 ± 2.90 257.96 ± 3.10 255.95 ± 4.22 254.58 ± 3.33 252.77 ± 3.99 250.06 ± 2.83 253.74 ± 3.77 251.67 ± 3.02 -0.88 14.66