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Table 4 Age (yrs) of the finalists (mean ± SD) at the Olympic Games 1992–2012 with correlation coefficient and effect size

From: Change of the age and performance of swimmers across World Championships and Olympic Games finals from 1992 to 2013 – a cross-sectional data analysis

Sex Stroke Distance 1992 1996 2000 2004 2008 2012 r-value Effect size
Women Freestyle 50 m 21.3 ± 2.5 23.6 ± 3.6 26.1 ± 3.6 24.3 ± 4.9 25.5 ± 7.2 26.8 ± 5.1 0.84 10.5
  100 m 20.1 ± 3.5 22.7 ± 3.7 25.7 ± 4.0 23.6 ± 4.0 24.1 ± 3.4 22.8 ± 3.5 0.45 1.63
  200 m 18.8 ± 3.8 21.3 ± 3.8 23.6 ± 4.6 20.8 ± 3.9 21.0 ± 2.7 22.3 ± 2.8 0.46 1.70
  400 m 20.6 ± 2.3 21.8 ± 5.0 21.0 ± 4.4 21.0 ± 1.3 21.0 ± 2.4 23.0 ± 2.7 0.56 2.54
  800 m 20.0 ± 1.8 23.8 ± 3.9 19.3 ± 3.2 22.0 ± 4.0 19.5 ± 3.5 21.7 ± 3.4 -0.05 0.10
  1500 m - - - - - -   
  Breaststroke 100 m 20.0 ± 3.9 21.2 ± 4.2 21.5 ± 5.8 22.8 ± 4.7 21.6 ± 3.3 21.8 ± 3.7 0.68 4.25
  200 m 20.2 ± 4.5 19.6 ± 3.7 18.0 ± 2.7 22.1 ± 3.0 21.7 ± 2.9 23.1 ± 2.2 0.71 4.89
  Backstroke 100 m 18.0 ± 2.3 20.0 ± 4.2 21.8 ± 4.5 22.5 ± 3.2 23.2 ± 2.8 21.5 ± 3.9 0.78 7.09
  200 m 20.0 ± 2.4 22.5 ± 3.5 21.2 ± 3.0 21.1 ± 2.4 20.6 ± 4.1 21.7 ± 3.6 0.18 0.43
  Butterfly 100 m 20.3 ± 3.2 20.5 ± 5.0 25.6 ± 4.7 24.2 ± 5.0 21.3 ± 2.4 22.8 ± 2.2 0.34 1.03
  200 m 21.0 ± 4.4 20.2 ± 3.4 21.2 ± 4.5 23.7 ± 4.7 21.7 ± 3.8 22.0 ± 0.7 0.54 2.34
  Medley 200 m 20.0 ± 1.8 22.7 ± 2.7 23.0 ± 3.1 21.0 ± 4.4 21.7 ± 2.4 23.0 ± 3.7 0.43 1.50
  400 m 19.2 ± 1.4 21.0 ± 3.4 20.2 ± 3.2 20.1 ± 2.7 19.2 ± 3.3 20.8 ± 2.7 0.19 0.46
Men Freestyle 50 m 24.8 ± 2.7 22.1 ± 1.9 25.0 ± 3.6 26.9 ± 3.6 25.0 ± 2.8 27.1 ± 3.6 0.65 3.71
  100 m 24.1 ± 2.7 22.5 ± 2.8 25.3 ± 2.4 24.4 ± 2.8 25.9 ± 4.0 23.8 ± 2.7 0.35 1.07
  200 m 21.5 ± 3.3 22.0 ± 3.3 22.6 ± 3.2 23.1 ± 2.5 22.2 ± 2.1 23.0 ± 2.8 0.75 6.00
  400 m 22.1 ± 3.9 21.5 ± 3.8 19.8 ± 4.8 22.1 ± 2.4 22.9 ± 2.8 23.6 ± 4.3 0.58 2.76
  800 m 22.1 ± 3.0 21.2 ± 2.4 21.5 ± 2.6 22.7 ± 3.2 22.5 ± 3.3 23.1 ± 3.1 0.73 5.40
  1500 m 22.1 ± 2.9 21.3 ± 2.5 21.5 ± 2.7 22.8 ± 3.1 22.5 ± 3.2 23.2 ± 3.0 0.73 5.41
  Breaststroke 100 m 22.5 ± 3.5 23.8 ± 2.4 20.6 ± 2.0 23.1 ± 1.4 26.2 ± 1.7 26.3 ± 3.3 0.70 4.66
  200 m 22.3 ± 2.4 24.6 ± 3.0 23.0 ± 2.5 20.5 ± 2.6 23.6 ± 2.8 25.0 ± 2.9 0.25 0.66
  Backstroke 100 m 23.2 ± 2.6 24.3 ± 2.2 22.8 ± 1.8 22.6 ± 3.9 23.5 ± 1.2 25.7 ± 2.7 0.44 1.57
  200 m 21.6 ± 1.0 23.7 ± 2.0 23.5 ± 4.7 22.7 ± 2.0 24.7 ± 3.3 22.1 ± 3.1 0.22 0.56
  Butterfly 100 m 24.0 ± 2.6 22.8 ± 2.6 21.0 ± 5.1 24.7 ± 3.9 24.1 ± 2.2 25.1 ± 2.9 0.47 1.77
  200 m 21.2 ± 3.2 21.6 ± 1.8 23.1 ± 4.1 22.7 ± 4.4 23.6 ± 1.7 24.1 ± 3.4 0.95 38.0
  Medley 200 m 21.6 ± 3.2 22.7 ± 1.0 25.8 ± 2.0 20.6 ± 2.0 23.5 ± 1.1 25.5 ± 3.7 0.42 1.44
  400 m 23.3 ± 1.1 24.3 ± 2.4 21.2 ± 3.0 20.8 ± 1.9 23.4 ± 2.3 22.2 ± 4.4 -0.35 1.07