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Table 3 Age (yrs) of the finalists (mean ± SD) at the World Championships 1994–2013 with correlation coefficient and effect size

From: Change of the age and performance of swimmers across World Championships and Olympic Games finals from 1992 to 2013 – a cross-sectional data analysis

Sex Stroke Distance 1994 1998 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 2011 2013 r-value Effect size
Women Freestyle 50 m 20.0 ± 4.0 24.3 ± 3.3 25.6 ± 2.8 24.3 ± 5.5 22.8 ± 3.2 25.0 ± 2.8 26.6 ± 8.0 25.4 ± 5.0 22.3 ± 3.9 0.32 0.94
  100 m 20.4 ± 3.5 22.5 ± 2.6 24.3 ± 3.7 24.0 ± 3.5 21.5 ± 2.7 24.1 ± 3.1 21.9 ± 2.5 24.1 ± 2.6 22.5 ± 3.8 0.29 0.81
  200 m 18.9 ± 2.8 22.8 ± 3.6 21.8 ± 4.9 22.8 ± 3.7 21.1 ± 3.4 22.4 ± 3.7 21.8 ± 1.8 21.0 ± 2.4 21.8 ± 2.8 0.23 0.59
  400 m 20.1 ± 2.6 21.5 ± 4.8 20.9 ± 5.1 20.9 ± 3.4 22.0 ± 4.9 21.4 ± 2.7 20.3 ± 5.1 22.4 ± 0.9 23.1 ± 1.9 0.64 3.55
  800 m 19.5 ± 3.4 21.1 ± 2.0 19.0 ± 0.8 20.3 ± 4.6 22.4 ± 4.7 20.8 ± 2.9 22.0 ± 2.9 21.1 ± 2.2 21.9 ± 3.1 0.64 3.55
  1500 m - - 18.4 ± 1.0 20.3 ± 4.6 21.8 ± 4.8 22.1 ± 2.5 22.8 ± 3.4 22.4 ± 4.1 22.6 ± 3.8 0.87 13.38
  Breaststroke 100 m 19.1 ± 3.1 22.8 ± 3.6 18.8 ± 3.3 21.0 ± 3.2 22.9 ± 3.2 22.1 ± 2.7 22.1 ± 3.5 22.8 ± 2.0 20.9 ± 4.0 0.47 1.77
  200 m 19.6 ± 2.3 21.8 ± 4.3 18.6 ± 4.0 19.9 ± 2.8 20.3 ± 2.6 22.3 ± 3.0 22.1 ± 1.8 23.0 ± 2.6 22.4 ± 4.0 0.71 4.89
  Backstroke 100 m 20.5 ± 2.0 21.6 ± 3.2 20.8 ± 3.1 21.5 ± 3.7 22.5 ± 2.3 21.0 ± 3.5 20.4 ± 3.0 22.0 ± 3.9 21.1 ± 3.8 0.14 0.32
  200 m 21.1 ± 3.1 23.0 ± 3.5 18.8 ± 2.8 20.0 ± 2.8 19.9 ± 2.6 21.9 ± 3.0 20.3 ± 3.7 19.4 ± 2.3 20.1 ± 2.9 -0.35 1.07
  Butterfly 100 m 19.6 ± 3.0 21.6 ± 3.5 21.3 ± 3.9 23.3 ± 3.7 22.6 ± 4.0 24.4 ± 3.5 22.3 ± 4.5 22.0 ± 2.3 22.8 ± 3.4 0.57 2.65
  200 m 20.0 ± 2.7 21.6 ± 2.7 21.0 ± 4.1 19.5 ± 1.3 20.2 ± 2.5 22.3 ± 3.4 22.1 ± 3.6 21.7 ± 1.7 22.6 ± 1.7 0.65 3.71
  Medley 200 m 19.5 ± 2.3 20.7 ± 3.6 21.0 ± 3.3 21.1 ± 3.4 20.1 ± 3.7 22.0 ± 2.6 21.5 ± 2.5 21.5 ± 2.9 22.5 ± 4.0 0.80 8.0
  400 m 19.8 ± 2.4 19.6 ± 3.0 20.4 ± 3.2 21.3 ± 3.5 19.8 ± 2.6 20.3 ± 2.8 21.8 ± 3.8 19.3 ± 2.7 20.8 ± 2.6 0.28 0.77
Men Freestyle 50 m 22.6 ± 1.5 23.3 ± 2.6 23.3 ± 3.7 27.8 ± 3.5 25.7 ± 2.6 24.3 ± 3.2 25.0 ± 2.6 24.5 ± 2.6 27.7 ± 4.6 0.58 2.76
  100 m 23.1 ± 2.7 23.6 ± 2.5 23.6 ± 3.1 25.0 ± 4.2 23.7 ± 3.6 26.1 ± 4.1 25.0 ± 2.6 23.7 ± 2.7 23.1 ± 3.0 0.19 0.46
  200 m 21.8 ± 2.9 21.7 ± 2.2 22.1 ± 2.3 23.2 ± 1.7 22.6 ± 3.6 22.5 ± 4.2 21.5 ± 1.8 23.6 ± 3.1 22.6 ± 3.3 0.43 1.50
  400 m 21.2 ± 2.9 21.1 ± 3.8 21.7 ± 2.6 23.5 ± 3.3 23.1 ± 2.4 23.1 ± 3.3 22.7 ± 1.7 23.5 ± 3.0 17.8 ± 5.5 -0.12 0.27
  800 m 21.7 ± 3.1 20.2 ± 1.5 21.6 ± 2.1 21.1 ± 3.4 20.8 ± 1.8 22.8 ± 3.2 23.6 ± 2.0 23.6 ± 2.5 22.5 ± 3.4 0.72 5.14
  1500 m 21.7 ± 3.1 20.2 ± 1.5 22.0 ± 1.8 21.3 ± 3.2 20.5 ± 2.4 23.2 ± 3.1 22.0 ± 2.4 22.8 ± 2.3 22.8 ± 3.4 0.62 3.26
  Breaststroke 100 m 23.0 ± 2.2 24.6 ± 3.9 21.1 ± 1.5 22.8 ± 1.6 24.1 ± 2.0 24.3 ± 2.3 24.2 ± 2.7 25.2 ± 3.1 25.2 ± 3.8 0.64 3.55
  200 m 23.2 ± 3.2 23.1 ± 2.7 22.7 ± 2.8 22.8 ± 2.6 21.7 ± 2.0 22.5 ± 2.4 23.3 ± 2.9 23.1 ± 3.5 22.5 ± 2.0 -0.19 0.46
  Backstroke 100 m 23.7 ± 1.3 22.5 ± 1.8 22.6 ± 3.0 21.1 ± 2.9 22.1 ± 2.0 24.3 ± 2.8 23.2 ± 2.0 24.2 ± 2.6 25.0 ± 3.4 0.54 2.34
  200 m 22.8 ± 1.8 23.5 ± 1.9 21.8 ± 4.0 23.0 ± 3.0 22.8 ± 2.8 24.6 ± 1.9 23.6 ± 3.4 23.2 ± 3.6 22.1 ± 3.4 0.08 0.17
  Butterfly 100 m 22.5 ± 2.6 22.0 ± 2.8 25.1 ± 3.9 23.8 ± 4.7 24.1 ± 3.8 23.0 ± 1.6 23.3 ± 1.9 25.7 ± 3.2 25.8 ± 3.4 0.67 4.06
  200 m 21.0 ± 2.3 21.8 ± 2.9 23.0 ± 4.0 22.8 ± 4.0 20.6 ± 1.2 22.6 ± 1.8 22.3 ± 2.4 23.3 ± 3.4 24.8 ± 3.0 0.66 3.88
  Medley 200 m 22.1 ± 1.8 25.5 ± 3.0 21.8 ± 3.6 22.5 ± 3.4 22.2 ± 2.5 24.5 ± 3.0 24.0 ± 1.7 25.1 ± 3.4 23.2 ± 4.1 0.32 0.94
  400 m 21.3 ± 2.3 23.5 ± 2.0 20.3 ± 2.5 21.7 ± 3.5 21.2 ± 1.6 23.2 ± 2.1 22.3 ± 1.7 22.0 ± 3.6 22.3 ± 2.9 0.23 0.59