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Table 1 Mean and (standard deviations) for participant characteristics and group comparisons

From: An investigation of trauma-associated appraisals and posttraumatic stress disorder in British and Asian trauma survivors: the development of the Public and Communal Self Appraisals Measure (PCSAM)

  British Asian t p
Age (years) 23.00 (6.27) 23.02 (4.18) .20 .98
Time in UK (years) 20.56 (6.71) 1.39 (2.00) 16.08 < .001
Self-rated English ability 9.06 (1.15) 5.78 (1.90) 9.18 < .001
Task difficulty 4.35 (2.19) 5.12 (1.85) 1.65 .10
IES-R 16.65 (17.33) 30.44 (15.50) .36 .001
HSCL 1.90 (.58) 1.60 (.47) 2.47 .02
Years since trauma 7.88 (6.91) 6.49 (6.57) .86 .39
Years since pleasant event 3.45 (3.99) 3.63 (4.73) .16 .88
Trauma type (n) Death/illness = 12; Accident = 3; Assault = 7; Life stressor = 12 Death/illness = 9; Accident = 9; Assault = 5; Life stressor = 18 - -
Positive type (n) Achievement = 20; Relationship = 12 Achievement = 28; Relationship = 7 - -
  1. Note: IES-R = Impact of Event Scale-Revised. HSCL = Hopkins Symptom Checklist. Life Stressor included academic stress, relationship stress or stress associated with moving.