Effects of milk-fat globule membrane (MFGM) on expression of genes associated with insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 signaling-related molecules. mRNA expression levels of IGF-1 (A), IGF-1 receptor (B), and IGF-binding protein (IGFBP)-5 (C) were measured using quantitative real-time PCR. Values are means ± S.E. of 7 or 8 mice. ††P < 0.01, significant difference between ICR group and control SAMP1 group by unpaired t-test. *P < 0.05, significant difference vs. control SAMP1 group by Fisher’s PLSD posthoc test. Values are expressed as ratios, using the value of the control SAMP1 group as 1.0. MFGMEx, MFGM plus habitual exercise.