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Table 2 Differences in perceived and developmental orientations by student type, gender, and ethnicity

From: Utilizing the Intercultural Development Inventory® to develop intercultural competence

Variable Perceived orientation Developmental orientation
  M SD t df p M SD t df p
Student Type    0.11 275 .91    −0.34 275 .73
 Undergraduate (n = 237) 121.85 5.88     95.16 15.25    
 Graduate (n = 40) 121.74 4.97     96.03 12.43    
Gender    0.18 273 .86    −0.41 273 .68
 Male (n = 38) 121.98 6.51     94.35 16.96    
 Female (n = 237) 121.80 5.62     95.41 14.51    
Ethnicity    1.99 272 .05    1.97 272 .05
 Minority (n = 55) 123.22 5.65     98.85 14.21    
 Non-Minority (n = 219) 121.50 5.75     94.46 14.96