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Table 4 Means ± SD of dietetic variables, percentage of dietetic deficiencies, and odds ratio (OR) of dietetic alterations for euthyroid post-menopausal women considering the presence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and triiodothyronine (T3) concentrations

From: Association between the serum concentration of triiodothyronine with components of metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular risk, and diet in euthyroid post-menopausal women without and with metabolic syndrome

  Without MetS n=29 MetS-T3Q1 n=20 MetS-T3Q2 n=16 MetS-T3Q3 n=18 MetS-T3Q4 n=19 Statistic K or F; P; χ2; P
Caloric intake (kcal/day) 1401.1 ± 514.3 1217.8 ± 380.1 1301.2 ± 500.3 1310.4 ±300.1 1584.7 ± 598.7 Ns
Low calories intake <1600 Kcal/day 69%a 95%b 68.8%ab 83.3%ab 52.6%a 10.3; 0.03
OR (CI 95%) for low calories intake without age adjusted REF 8.5 (0.9-74.0)* 0.9 (0.2-3.6) 2.2 (0.5-9.7) 0.5 (0.1-1.6)
OR (CI 95%) for low calories intakeǂ REF 7.3 (0.8-65.8) 1.0 (0.2-4.0) 2.3 (0.5-10.6) 0.5 (0.1-2.0)
Protein intake (g/day) 50.8 ± 20.4 46.8 ± 16.0 51.7 ± 19.7 49.4 ± 16.6 63.7 ± 28.7 Ns
Low protein intake (range 10-35%) 6.9% 5% 12.5% 5.5% 0.0% Ns
OR (CI 95%) for low protein intakeǂ REF 0.6 (0.05-7.9) 1.9 (0.2-16.1) 0.7 (0.6-9.7) NA  
Lipid intake (g/day) 36.31 ± 24.9 31.6 ± 17.9 30.4 ± 15.8 34.8 ± 15.6 42.6 ± 27.7 Ns
Low lipid intake (range 20-35%) 48.3% 35.0% 43.8% 22.2% 31.5% Ns
OR (CI 95%) for low lipid intakeǂ REF 0.5 (0.1-1.8) 1.0 (0.2-3.6) 0.3 (0.09-1.4) 0.8 (0.2-3.1)
Carbohydrate intake (g/day) 218.4 ± 71.5 186.6 ± 64.1 205.3 ± 101.5 200.4 ± 49.6 236.7 ± 74.4 Ns
High carbohydrate intake (range 45-65%) 44.8% 25.0% 25.0% 22.2% 26.3% Ns
OR (CI 95%) for high carbohydrate intakeǂ REF 0.4 (0.1-1.4) 0.4 (0.1-1.8) 0.4 (0.1-1.5) 0.6 (0.1-2.4)
Fiber (g/day) 15.2 ± 5.6 14.2 ± 6.6 15.0 ± 4.2 14.5 ± 3.3 18.7 ± 5.9 6 Ns
Low fiber intake <22 g/day 86.2% 85.0% 93.8% 100% 8.4% Ns
Calcium (mg/day) 991.2 ± 443.9 909.8 ± 333.0 1071.5 ± 488.1 909.9 ± 326.1 1227.6 ± 589.9 Ns
Low calcium intake <1200 mg/day 69.0% 80.0% 68.8% 88.9% 52.6% Ns
Sodium (mg/day) 1418.5 ± 581.6 1333.1 ± 577.8 1379.8 ± 411.3 1405.5 ± 328.9 1735.4 ± 578.5 Ns
High sodium intake <2300 mg/day 10.3% 10.0% 6.3% 0.0% 15.7% Ns
Phosphorous (mg/day) 761.3 ± 301.1 680.7 ± 217.0 810.2 ± 432.7 737.4 ± 229.8 885.9 ± 329.4 Ns
Low phosphorous intake <700 mg/day 48.3% 65.0% 37.5% 50.0% 36.0% Ns
Iron (mg/day) 31.2 ± 10.3ab 28.6 ± 12.2a 31.1 ± 8.4ab 29.3 ± 6.3 ab 38.3 ± 12.5b 2.6; 0.03
Low iron intake <8 mg/day 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% Ns
Selenium (mg/day) 25.8 ± 23.7 25.2 ± 20.6 33.3 ± 24.3 25.7 ± 19.9 37.6 ± 25.1 Ns
Low selenium intake <55 mg/day 82.8% 95.0% 75.0% 83.3% 63.1% Ns
Ascorbic acid (mg/day) 30.1 ± 31.7 46.1 ± 72.3 35.2 ± 28.5 28.0 ± 33.5 29.6 ± 13.8 Ns
Low ascorbic acid intake <75 mg/day 89.7% 90.0% 93.8% 94.4% 100.0% Ns
Vitamin A (μg ER/day) 621.8 ± 476.1 615.7 ± 338.4 752.8 ± 462.2 605.8 ± 324.2 768.4 ± 352.9 Ns
Low vitamin A intake <700 mg/day 62.1% 65.0% 50.0% 61.1% 47.3% Ns
Vitamin E (mg/day) 4.2 ± 3.3 6.3 ± 4.5 4.9 ± 2.5 6.0 ± 3.9 5.6 ± 3.1 Ns
Low vitamin E intake <15 mg/day 100.0% 95.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% Ns
Folate (mcg/day) 71.0 ± 76.1 91.0 ± 88.1 66.3 ± 68.8 67.0 ± 79.6 70.5 ± 32.9 Ns
Low folate intake <400 mcg/day 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% Ns
  1. Note: Diet survey was applied to 102 women. ANOVA or Kruskal-Wallis tests and Tukey-Kramer or Dunn’s post-hoc tests, and chi-square were applied. ǂBinomial regression analysis (age and BMI adjusted) were done for macronutrients. Ns: no significant. Different letters indicate statistical differences between groups reported by post-hoc tests. *P = 0.05; P = 0.07.