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Table 1 The relative concentrations (%), and organic parameters of the various lipid compound groups of propolis samples from different regions of Ethiopia

From: Characteristics and chemical compositions of propolis from Ethiopia

    Enemore Holleta Bako Gedo Average SD
Yield (%)    27.2 33.4 62.0 64.2 46.7 19.1
Compound Composition M.W.       
Triterpenoids         
β-Amyrone C30H48O 424 0.08 0.01 0.36 1.16   
α-Amyrone C30H48O 424 0.19 0.01 0.00 1.88   
β-Amyrin C30H50O 426 0.29 0.12 3.29 0.00   
α-Amyrin C30H50O 426 83.79 63.11 0.00 3.16   
β-Amyryl acetate C32H52O2 468 0.15 0.19 44.88 53.79   
α-Amyryl acetate C32H52O2 468 0.00 0.00 46.72 29.72   
Lupeol C30H50O 426 1.81 0.24 2.29 1.84   
Moretenol C32H52O2 426 0.46 0.19 0.05 2.04   
Moretenyl acetate C32H52O2 468 0.15 0.09 0.00 0.09   
Total    86.91 63.96 97.60 93.67 85.53 15.04
n-Alkanes         
Heneicosane C21H44 296 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.01   
Docosane C22H46 310 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00   
Tricosane C23H48 324 0.14 1.02 0.03 0.05   
Tetracosane C24H50 338 0.01 0.25 0.01 0.02   
Pentacosane C25H52 352 0.58 4.50 0.20 0.37   
Hexacosane C26H54 366 0.10 0.58 0.03 0.04   
Heptacosane C27H56 380 1.88 7.56 0.44 0.93   
Octacosane C28H58 394 0.12 0.36 0.02 0.04   
Nonacosane C29H60 408 0.38 1.27 0.08 0.25   
Triacontane C30H62 422 0.02 0.18 0.00 0.03   
Hentriacontane C31H64 436 0.32 1.16 0.06 0.21   
Total    3.54 16.89 0.87 1.94 5.82 7.48
CPI (o/e)a    13.56 10.95 12.26 14.25 12.75 1.46
n-Alkenes         
Pentacosene C25H50 350     0.009   
Hexacosene C26H52 364     0.012   
Heptacosene C27H54 378     0.014   
Octacosene C28H56 392 1.68 1.40 0.06 0.093   
Nonacosene C29H58 406 0.27 0.17 0.02 0.033   
Triacontene C30H60 420 1.31 0.83 0.04 0.042   
Hentriacontene C31H62 434 0.05 1.27 0.01 0.037   
Dotriacontene C32H64 448 0.89 0.48 0.04 0.047   
Tritriacontene C33H66 462 8.11 9.06 0.53 0.912   
Tetratriacontene C34H68 476 0.20 0.13 0.00 0.033   
Pentatriacontene C35H70 490 0.86 2.54 0.14 0.284   
Total    6.61 15.88 0.85 1.515 6.23 6.96
CPI (o/e)b    2.49 5.39 6.10 7.24 5.30 2.02
Methyl n-Alkanoates         
Methyl dodenoate C13H26O2 214 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.001   
Methyl tridecanoate C14H28O2 228 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000   
Methyl tetradecanoate C15H30O2 242 0.004 0.004 0.001 0.001   
Methyl pentadecanoate C16H32O2 256 0.003 0.001 0.001 0.001   
Methyl hexadecenoate C17H32O2 286 0.006 0.000 0.000 0.000   
Methyl hexadecanoate C17H34O2 270 0.304 0.222 0.093 0.123   
Methyl heptadecenoate C18H34O2 282 0.001 0.000 0.000 0.001   
Methyl octadecenoate C19H36O2 296 0.006 0.013 0.008 0.011   
Methyl octadecanoate C19H38O2 298 0.029 0.021 0.008 0.012   
Methyl nonadecanoate C20H40O2 312 0.001 0.000 0.000 0.000   
Methyl eicosanoate C21H42O2 326 0.010 0.007 0.004 0.007   
Methyl heneicosanoate C22H44O2 340 0.001 0.000 0.000 0.001   
Methyl docosanoate C23H46O2 354 0.018 0.010 0.004 0.005   
Methyl tricosanoate C24H48O2 368 0.031 0.004 0.002 0.002   
Methyl tetracosanoate C25H50O2 382 0.199 0.160 0.045 0.065   
Methyl pentacosanoate C26H52O2 396 0.001 0.000 0.000 0.001   
Methyl hexacosanoate C27H54O2 410 0.058 0.048 0.013 0.017   
Methyl heptacosanoate C28H56O2 424 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000   
Methyl octacosanoate C29H58O2 438 0.035 0.029 0.009 0.012   
Total    0.709 0.521 0.189 0.260 0.419 0.239
CPI(o/e as esters) c    16.92 87.04 45.63 0.28 37.47 37.99
Wax esters         
Docosyl hexadecanoate C38H76O2 564 0.15 0.17 0.068 0.167   
Tetracosyl hexadecanoate C40H80O2 592 0.74 1.75 0.191 0.372   
Hexacosyl hexadecanoate C42H84O2 620 0.20 0.16 0.032 0.052   
Octacosyl hexadecanoate C44H88O2 648 trace trace 0.00 0.00   
Total    1.10 2.08 0.29 0.59 1.02 0.78
  1. a = C 23 + C 25 + .... + C 31 C 22 + C 24 + .... + C 30 ; b = C 27 + C 29 + .... + C 35 C 26 + C 28 + .... + C 34 ; c = C 15 + C 17 + .... + C 29 C 14 + C 16 + .... + C 28 .