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Table 4 Secondary analysis of the effects of low-fat and low-carbohydrate diets on serum adipokine concentrations among women who were adherent to the physical activity component of the intervention, N = 49

From: Favorable effects of low-fat and low-carbohydrate dietary patterns on serum leptin, but not adiponectin, among overweight and obese premenopausal women: a randomized trial

Biomarker Intervention arm Baseline Week 34 Week 52
Geometric mean (95% CI) Geometric mean (95% CI) Geometric mean (95% CI)
  Low-fat 9.72 (8.11–11.65) 9.55 (8.11–11.24) 9.36 (7.61–11.52)
Adiponectin (μg/mL) Low-carbohydrate 10.86 (8.90–13.24) 10.66 (8.91–12.76) 10.44 (8.31–13.13)
  Overall 10.27 (8.98–11.75) 10.09 (8.94–11.39) 9.89 (8.47–11.54)
Leptin (ng/mL)a Low-fat 25.93 (20.38–32.98) 17.07 (13.54–21.52) 18.85 (14.13–25.16)
Low-carbohydrate 31.56 (24.61–40.47) 20.52 (15.80–26.64) 20.87 (14.47–30.10)
Overall 28.61 (24.06–34.01) 18.85 (15.30–15.30) 19.83 (15.71–25.04)
A/L ratiob Low-fat 0.40 (0.30–0.54) 0.46 (0.36–0.59) 0.54 (0.38–0.77)
Low-carbohydrate 0.35 (0.26–0.49) 0.44 (0.34–0.58) 0.57 (0.38–0.85)
Overall 0.38 (0.30–0.47) 0.45 (0.37–0.54) 0.55 (0.42–0.72)
  1. NOTE: Mixed models with repeated measurements of natural log transformed serum adipokine concentrations were used. Overall estimates are averages across the two diets. Estimates for leptin assume a quadratic trend in time. All other estimates assume a linear trend in time. Data presented correspond to geometric means and 95% CIs. No difference in trend by diet was observed for any biomarker.
  2. aBorderline significant quadratic trend was observed for serum leptin (P = 0.05); no difference observed between baseline and Week 52 serum leptin concentrations (P > 0.05).
  3. bAverage trend in time across diets was significant (P = 0.02). Significant difference observed between baseline and Week 52 for the A/L ratio for low-carbohydrate diet (P = 0.05).