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Table 3 Secondary analysis of the effects of low-fat and low-carbohydrate diets on serum adipokine concentrations among women who were adherent to the dietary component of the intervention, N = 18

From: Favorable effects of low-fat and low-carbohydrate dietary patterns on serum leptin, but not adiponectin, among overweight and obese premenopausal women: a randomized trial

Biomarker Intervention arm Baseline Week 34 Week 52
Geometric mean (95% CI) Geometric mean (95% CI) Geometric mean (95% CI)
  Low-fat 11.93 (8.13–17.50) 10.11 (7.02–14.57) 8.39 (4.85–14.53)
Adiponectin (μg/mL) Low-carbohydrate 11.06 (7.53–16.25) 11.55 (8.20–16.27) 12.11 (7.69–19.09)
  Overall 11.49 (8.76–15.07) 10.80 (8.41–13.88) 10.08 (7.06–14.40)
Leptin (ng/mL) Low-fat 28.21 (16.76–47.50) 22.21 (12.80–38.54) 22.97 (7.95–66.37)
Low-carbohydrate 29.12 (17.24–49.18) 25.34 (14.92–43.04) 20.36 (9.41–44.06)
Overall 28.66 (19.81–41.48) 24.65 (16.00–37.97) 21.62 (11.23–41.65)
A/L ratio Low-fat 0.43 (0.23–0.80) 0.42 (0.23–0.76) 0.41 (0.16–1.06)
Low-carbohydrate 0.38 (0.20–0.71) 0.46 (0.27–0.80) 0.58 (0.27–1.25)
Overall 0.40 (0.26–0.63) 0.44 (0.29–0.66) 0.49 (0.27–0.90)
  1. NOTE: Mixed models with repeated measurements of natural log transformed serum adipokine concentrations were used. Overall estimates are averages across the two diets. Estimates for leptin assume a quadratic trend in time. All other estimates assume a linear trend in time. Data presented correspond to geometric means and 95% CIs. No difference in trend by diet was observed for any biomarker.