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Table 2 Effects of low-fat and low-carbohydrate diets on serum adipokine concentrations, N = 71

From: Favorable effects of low-fat and low-carbohydrate dietary patterns on serum leptin, but not adiponectin, among overweight and obese premenopausal women: a randomized trial

Biomarker Intervention arm Baseline Week 34 Week 52
Geometric mean (95% CI) Geometric mean (95% CI) Geometric mean (95% CI)
  Low-fat 10.41 (8.87–12.22) 9.98 (8.62–11.56) 9.52 (7.83–11.58)
Adiponectin (μg/mL) Low-carbohydrate 11.03 (9.32–13.05) 10.77 (9.21–12.58) 10.48 (8.50–12.91)
  Overall 10.72 (9.54–12.03) 10.37 (9.31–11.54) 9.99 (8.66–11.52)
Leptin (ng/mL)a Low-fat 28.37 (22.72–35.43) 19.90 (15.73–25.18) 21.85 (16.21–29.45)
Low-carbohydrate 31.82 (25.34–39.95) 20.60 (15.99–26.54) 25.56 (18.02–36.24)
Overall 30.05 (25.63–35.23) 19.80 (16.25–24.14) 23.63 (18.78–29.73)
A/L ratiob Low-fat 0.38 (0.29–0.51) 0.42 (0.33–0.54) 0.47 (0.33–0.68)
Low-carbohydrate 0.36 (0.27–0.49) 0.43 (0.33–0.56) 0.52 (0.35–0.76)
Overall 0.37 (0.30–0.46) 0.43 (0.35–0.51) 0.50 (0.38–0.64)
  1. NOTE: Mixed models with repeated measurements of natural log transformed serum adipokine concentrations were used.
  2. Overall estimates are averages across the two diets. Estimates for leptin assume a quadratic trend in time. All other estimates assume a linear trend in time. Data presented correspond to geometric means and 95% CIs. No difference in trend by diet was observed for any biomarker.
  3. aSignificant quadratic trend was observed for serum leptin (P = 0.01); no difference observed between baseline and Week 52 serum leptin concentrations (P > 0.05).
  4. bAverage trend in time across diets was borderline significant for serum A/L ratio (P = 0.05).