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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of study participants, N = 79

From: Favorable effects of low-fat and low-carbohydrate dietary patterns on serum leptin, but not adiponectin, among overweight and obese premenopausal women: a randomized trial

  Total, N = 79 n (%) Dietary intervention arm
Low-fat, n = 41 n (%) Low-carbohydrate, n = 38 n (%)
Age (years)    
 30–34 12 (15) 7 (17) 5 (13)
 35–39 18 (23) 10 (24) 8 (21)
 40–44 25 (32) 14 (34) 11 (29)
 45–49 19 (24) 9 (22) 10 (26)
 50–54 5 (6) 1 (2) 4 (11)
Race    
 White 54 (68) 29 (69) 25 (68)
 Black 21 (27) 11 (26) 10 (27)
 Asian 1 (1) 1 (2) 0 (0)
 American Indian 1 (1) 0 (0) 1 (3)
 Other 2 (3) 1 (2) 1 (3)
Marital status    
 Married 65 (82) 35 (83) 30 (81)
 Divorced/separated 4 (5) 3 (7) 1 (3)
 Single, never married 7 (9) 2 (5) 5 (14)
 Single, living as married 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0)
 Widowed 2 (3) 2 (5) 0 (0)
 Unknown 1 (1) 0 (0) 1 (3)
Education    
 High school diploma/GED 3 (4) 1 (2) 2 (5)
 Vocational/training school 2 (3) 2 (5) 0 (0)
 Some college 14 (18) 11 (26) 3 (8)
 Associate’s degree 7 (9) 3 (7) 4 (11)
 Bachelor’s degree 20 (25) 9 (21) 11 (30)
 Master’s degree 9 (11) 4 (10) 5 (14)
 Doctorate degree 4 (5) 2 (5) 2 (5)
 Unknown 20 (25) 10 (24) 10 (27)
Employment status    
 Full-time 38 (48) 24 (57) 14 (38)
 Part-time 9 (11) 3 (7) 6 (16)
 On medical leave (employed) 1 (1) 1 (2) 0 (0)
 Self-employed 6 (8) 4 (10) 2 (5)
 Homemaker 5 (6) 0 (0) 5 (14)
 Unknown 20 (25) 10 (24) 10 (27)
Occupation    
 Professional/technical-managerial/administrative 43 (54) 20 (48) 23 (62)
 Sales/clerical service 7 (9) 5 (12) 2 (5)
 Craftsman/machine operator/laborer 1 (1) 1 (2) 0 (0)
 Other 8 (10) 6 (14) 2 (5)
 Unknown 20 (25) 10 (24) 10 (27)
Annual household income    
 <$10,000 1 (1) 1 (2) 0 (0)
 $10,000-$19,999 2 (3) 0 (0) 2 (5)
 $20,000-$34,999 4 (5) 3 (7) 1 (3)
 $35,000-$49,999 7 (9) 3 (7) 4 (11)
 $50,000-$74,999 12 (15) 6 (14) 6 (16)
 $75,000-$99,999 15 (19) 5 (12) 10 (27)
 $100,000-$149,999 10 (13) 6 (14) 4 (11)
 >$150,000 5 (6) 3 (7) 2 (5)
 Don’t know 1 (1) 1 (2) 0 (0)
 Refused 3 (4) 2 (5) 1 (3)
 Unknown 22 (28) 12 (29) 10 (27)
Health insurance status    
 Private insurance 54 (68) 28 (67) 26 (70)
 Military of VA insurance 1(1) 1 (2) 0 (0)
 Medicare 1 (1) 1 (2) 0 (0)
 Uninsured, self-pay 3 (4) 1 (2) 2 (5)
 Uninsured, no means to pay 1 (1) 1 (2) 0 (0)
 Unknown 19 (24) 10 (24) 9 (24)
Smoking status    
 Never/former smoker 56 (71) 29 (69) 27 (73)
 Current smoker 1 (1) 1 (2) 0 (0)
BMI (kg/m2), mean ± SD 30.3 (2.8) 30.5 (2.9) 30.1 (2.6)
Energy expenditure through physical activity (kcal/day), mean ± SDa 515.0 (176.2) 526.8 (204.6) 500.9 (137.1)
Daily dietary consumption, mean ± SDb    
 Total calories 1729.3 (409.2) 1760.9 (299.0) 1729.3 (409.2)
 Fat (% of calories) 31.4 (4.9) 30.3 (5.1) 32.4 (4.4)
 Protein (% of calories) 18.8 (3.7) 17.2 (2.7) 20.3 (3.9)
 Carbohydrates (% of calories) 50.2 (6.7) 53.5 (6.0) 46.9 (5.6)
  1. aBaseline physical activity data available only for 57 participants.
  2. bBaseline daily dietary consumption data were available only for 73 participants.