Linear gains determine the gain and stability of networks in response to modulation. or the medium contrast, linear gain (ζ, black line) is computed at each EPSP and is compared with the corresponding modulation gain, γ
= Output modulation/Input modulation (orange). ζ is computed as ζ = δ r/(J
δ s), for a small perturbation of the input, δ s = 100 spikes/s. Inset: The radius, ρ, of bulk spectrum of W, normalized by the linear gain (ζ) at each EPSP. Instead of dividing J by Vth (as in Figure 4C), J is now multiplied by ζ. As a result, the normalized radius is now obtained as .