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Table 3 Determination of free D -amino acids in fruit and vegetable vinegar samples

From: Distribution of D-amino acids in vinegars and involvement of lactic acid bacteria in the production of D-amino acids

Amino acid High-brix apple vinegar Balsámico White wine vinegar Tomato vinegar Lactic fermented tomato vinegar
μMa % D b μM % D μM % D μM % D μM % D
D-Asp 113.4 3.5 17.4 5.7 N. D. d N. D. 69.0 0.4 660.9 2.3
D-Ser c N. D. N. D. N. D. N. D. 50.5 1.4
D-Gln
D-His
D-Thr
D-Arg 10.7 0.7 N. D. N. D. 53.2 4.2
D-Ala 149.6 13.4 34.4 3.4 10.1 3.3 41.1 0.3 1,355.7 6.5
D-Tyr
D-Val N. D. N. D. N. D. N. D. 134.3 8.7
D-Met 29.3 78.1
D-Trp
D-Phe N. D. N. D. N. D. N. D. 96.3 2.7
D-aIlo-Ile N. D. N. D. 521.8 35.8
D-Leu N. D. N. D. N. D. N. D. N. D. N. D. 401.2 35.1
D-Glu 9.1 2.0 7.0 2.4 N. D. N. D. 64.7 0.2 265.6 0.7
D-Asn 247.9 13.1 62.9 0.5 205.4 1.2
  1. aConcentrations cited are smaller one among the amino acid concentrations determined using NAC and NBC as chiral regents.
  2. bRelative percentages of D-amino acids were calculated as 100 × [D-amino acid]/[D-amino acid + L-amino acid].
  3. c−, not detected.
  4. dN. D., not determined. The D-amino acid peak was confirmed, but the concentration of the D-amino acid was too low to be determined.