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Table 1 Statistical summary of the effect of AQUATITAN tape applied during recovery from intermittent high-intensity running on Achilles tendon stiffness, ankle joint range of motion during plantarflexion, and the short latency reflex, relative to the pre-run baseline, and the post-treatment comparisons for peak torque during maximal isokinetic contractions of the Triceps Surae

From: Effect of microtitanium impregnated tape on the recovery of triceps surae musculotendinous function following strenuous running

Outcome1 Mean effect; ±95%CL(%)2 Standardised difference; ±95%CL P-value Magnitude-based inference3
  Achilles tendon stiffness
Placebo -16.5; ±8.1 -0.40; ±0.21 32E-5 Small very likely
AQUA TITAN -5.9; ±9.2 -0.14; ±0.23 0.23 Trivial possible
AQUA TITAN- Placebo -11.3; ±11.6 -0.28; ±0.31 0.09 Small possible
  Plantarflexion range of motion
Placebo -1.6; ±1.9 -0.12; ±0.15 0.12 Trivial likely
AQUA TITAN 1.6; ±2.0 0.12; ±0.15 0.11 Trivial likely
AQUA TITAN- Placebo -3.1; ±2.7 -0.24; ±0.21 0.03 Small possible
  Short latency reflex time
Placebo 1.6; ±3.8 0.20; ±0.48 0.42 Small possible
AQUA TITAN -11.3; ±3.3 -1.4; ±0.47 8E-9 Large almost certain
AQUA TITAN- Placebo 14.6; ±6.2 1.8; ±0.7 26E-7 Large almost certain
  Peak torque during maximal isokinetic contraction
30º∙s-1 AQUA TITAN- Placebo 4.2; ±14.2 0.06; ±0.19 0.57 Likely trivial
60º∙s-1 AQUA TITAN- Placebo 11.1; ±10.9 0.12; ±0.12 0.03 Likely trivial
90º∙s-1 AQUA TITAN- Placebo -7.3; ±8.2 -0.08; ±0.09 0.09 Very likely trivial
120º∙s-1 AQUA TITAN- Placebo -6.2; ±13.8 -0.07; ±0.15 0.41 Likely trivial
Overall AQUA TITAN- Placebo 0.08; ±7.7 0.001; ±0.08 0.98 Almost certainly trivial
  1. 1Data are the difference in the post intermittent high-intensity run measure minus the pre run measure. For peak torque during maximal isokinetic contraction, only the post-pre difference in the AQUA TITAN minus Placebo contrasts is shown.
  2. 2Add or subtract this value by the mean to obtain the upper and lower confidence limits.
  3. 3Magnitude-based inferences about the true value for outcomes were qualified using a modification of the Cohen effect size classification system (trivial = 0.0–0.2, small = 0.2–0.6, moderate = 0.6–1.2, large = 1.2–2.0, very large = 2.0–4.0, and extremely large >4.0). The threshold standardised difference considered substantial is small. The thresholds for assigning qualitative terms to probability of a substantial effect were: <0.5%, almost certainly not; <5%, very unlikely; <25%, unlikely; <75%, possible; >75%, likely; >95%, very likely; >99.5%, almost certain (Hopkins et al. 2009).