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Table 2 Univariate analysis of child mortality across birth order (1–5)

From: Maternal factors contributing to under-five mortality at birth order 1 to 5 in India: a comprehensive multivariate study

Variables Categories Birth order−1 Birth order −2 Birth order −3 Birth order −4 Birth order −5
Unadjusted Unadjusted Unadjusted Unadjusted Unadjusted
OR & CI 95% OR & CI 95% OR & CI 95% OR & CI 95% OR & CI 95%
Mother’s age Continuous 0.93(0.91– 0.94) 0.93(0.91- 0.95) 0.95(0.93- 0.98) 0.97(0.95 - 0.99) 0.99(0.96 - 1.02)
Gender of child Female 0.78(0.68 – 0.89) 1.04(0.89– 1.21) 1.03(0.85– 1.26) 1.26(1.01– 1.58) 1.48(1.12– 1.96)
Place of residence Rural 1.73(1.50 – 2.00) 1.50(1.27– 1.78) 1.27(1.02– 1.57) 1.12(0.87– 1.45) 0.96(0.69– 1.31)
Religion Muslim 1.03(0.85 – 1.25) 0.81(0.64– 1.03) 1.15(0.89– 1.47) 0.57(0.41– 0.80) 0.67(0.46– 0.98)
Christian 0.66(0.50 – 0.87) 0.81(0.60– 1.10) 0.81(0.48– 1.03) 0.88(0.61– 1.27) 0.78(0.49– 1.22)
Others 0.88(0.65 – 1.22) 0.73(0.48– 1.11) 0.73(0.52– 1.46) 0.98(0.55– 1.75) 1.14(0.58– 2.22)
Caste Scheduled tribe 0.97(0.78 – 1.22) 0.87(0.67– 1.12) 0.84(0.61– 1.15) 0.97(0.70– 1.36) 0.81(0.53– 1.24)
Other backward classes 0.87(0.72 – 1.05) 0.74(0.59– 0.91) 0.80(0.61– 1.04) 0.82(0.60– 1.12) 0.91(0.62– 1.33)
Others 0.62(0.51 – 0.76) 0.58(0.46– 0.73) 0.75(0.56– 1.10) 0.66(0.46– 0.95) 0.85(0.55– 1.32)
Wealth index Middle 0.65(0.55 – 0.77) 0.61(0.49 – 0.75) 0.64(0.49 – 0.83) 0.68(0.50 – 0.93) 1.17(0.84 – 1.63)
Richer & richest 0.33(0.28 – 0.39) 0.40(0.34 – 0.48) 0.53(0.42 – 0.67) 0.63(0.63 – 1.08) 0.70(0.47 – 1.04)
Standard of living Medium 0.63(0.52 – 0.75) 0.72(0.60 – 0.88) 0.67(0.53 – 0.86) 0.80(0.62 – 1.04) 0.77(0.57 – 1.06)
High 0.36(0.30 – 0.43) 0.35(0.28 – 0.43) 0.57(0.44 – 0.74) 0.71(0.52 – 0.97) 0.68(0.45 – 1.02)
Mother’s education Primary 0.76(0.63 – 0.92) 0.67(0.54 – 0.84) 0.90(0.70 – 1.17) 0.82(0.58–1.15) 0.83(0.53– 1.28)
Secondary 0.42(0.36 – 0.49) 0.38(0.31 – 0.45) 0.55(0.40 – 0.69) 0.74(0.55– 0.99) 0.82(0.55– 1.24)
Higher 0.21(0.15 – 0.28) 0.15(0.09 – 0.25) 0.39(0.10 – 0.84) 0.63(0.20– 2.01) 0.89(0.12– 6.87)
Father’s education Primary 0.80(0.65 – 0.98) 0.89(0.70 – 1.13) 1.04(0.78 – 1.39) 0.99(0.72 – 1.36) 1.05(0.71 – 1.54)
Secondary 0.48(0.41 – 0.57) 0.56(0.46 – 0.68) 0.82(0.65 – 1.03) 0.86(0.66 – 1.11) 0.88(0.64 – 1.21)
Higher 0.29(0.22 – 0.37) 0.27(0.20 – 0.38) 0.53(0.33 – 0.85) 0.52(0.26 – 0.03) 0.52(0.18 – 1.45)
Mother’s occupation Service 1.02(0.83 – 1.26) 1.35(1.08 – 1.69) 1.19(0.90 – 1.57) 1.23(0.90– 1.70) 1.40(0.96– 2.04)
Agriculture 1.79(1.52 – 2.10) 1.75(1.45 – 2.11) 1.14(0.91 – 1.44) 1.18(0.91– 1.53) 1.06(0.77– 1.45)
Father’s occupation Service 0.76(0.46 – 1.28) 1.90(0.60 – 6.00) 0.94(0.34 – 2.65) 1.43(0.34– 5.94) 0.65(0.14 – 2.70)
Agriculture 1.15(0.68 – 1.93) 2.53(0.80 – 8.00) 0.88(0.32 – 2.45) 1.47(0.35– 6.15) 0.59(0.13 – 2.60)
Mother’s anaemia Moderate 0.99(0.50 – 1.66) 0.57(0.36 – 0.91) 0.56(0.31 – 0.99) 0.80(0.40– 1.61) 0.72(0.34– 1.55)
Mild- anaemia 0.74(0.45 – 1.23) 0.38(0.24 – 0.59) 0.43(0.25 – 0.76) 0.54(0.27– 1.07) 0.42(0.20– 0.89)
No- anaemia 0.62(0.37 – 1.02) 0.32(0.21 – 0.51) 0.34(0.19 – 0.60) 0.52(0.26– 1.04) 0.49(0.23– 1.02)
Prenatal care Yes 0.50(0.37 – 0.68) 0.45(0.34 – 0.60) 0.78(0.55 – 1.10) 0.79(0.55 – 1.12) 1.23(0.80 – 1.88)
Antenatal care Govt. hospital 0.75(0.51 – 1.10) 1.20(0.78 – 2.03) 0.83(0.50 – 1.36) 1.40(0.66 – 2.98) 1.07 (0.51– 2.24)
Private hospital 0.53(0.36 – 0.78) 0.83(0.51 – 1.36) 0.62(0.36 – 1.09) 1.64(0.76 – 3.57) 0.67(0.29 – 1.57)
Village/NGO 0.82(0.36 – 1.88) 1.18(0.44 – 3.17) 0.21(0.03 – 1.65) 0.72(0.09 – 5.89) 0.59(0.07 – 4.79)
Information regarding complications in pregnancy Yes 0.52(0.39 – 0.70) 0.90(0.67 – 1.20) 0.83(0.53 – 1.25) 0.80(0.48– 1.31) 0.79(0.38 – 1.61)
Pregnancy health nutrition education Yes 1.12(0.80 – 1.60) 0.94(0.63 – 1.41) 0.90(0.53 – 1.53) 0.70(0.37 – 1.34) 0.87(0.40 – 1.91)
Breastfeeding health nutrition education Yes 0.76(0.40 – 1.43) 1.08(0.62 – 1.89) 1.07(0.51 – 2.34) 0.93(0.36 – 2.41) 1.30(0.54 – 3.16)
Size of child at birth Average 0.88(0.74 – 1.05) 0.92(0.75 – 1.14) 1.02(0.78 – 1.33) 1.23(0.88 – 1.71) 1.40(0.94 – 2.12)
Below average 1.54(1.27 – 1.86) 1.93(1.54 – 2.42) 1.80(1.34 – 2.40) 2.56(1.80 – 3.65) 2.00(1.29 – 3.14)
Place of delivery Hospital 0.50(0.44 – 0.57) 0.54(0.46 – 0.64) 0.75(0.61 – 0.94) 1.02(0.78 – 1.32) 1.13(0.80 – 1.59)
Breastfeeding Yes 0.42(0.37 – 0.48) 0.48(0.41 – 0.56) 0.40(0.33 – 0.49) 0.38(0.30 – 0.48) 0.32(0.24 – 0.43)
Immunization Yes 0.76(0.60 – 0.98) 0.57(0.40 – 0.82) 0.78(0.51 – 1.21) 0.92(0.56 – 1.55) 0.77(0.36 – 1.63)
Child age in months 1-12 months 0.35(0.30 – 0.41) 0.60(0.50 – 0.73) 0.64(0.52 – 0.80) 0.70(0.55 – 0.92) 0.63(0.45 – 0.87)
>12 month 0.03(0.20 – 0.04) 0.46(0.38 – 0.56) 0.08(0.05 – 0.10) 0.07(0.05 – 0.11) 0.09(0.06 – 0.13)
Birth interval 24-36 months -- 0.60(0.50 – 0.73) 0.54(0.41 – 0.70) 0.53(0.41 – 0.70) 0.55(0.40 – 0.76)
>36 months -- 0.46(0.38 – 0.56) 0.43(0.34 – 0.55) 0.38(0.28 – 0.51) 0.31(0.22 – 0.45)
  1. Reference Category: Gender of Child: Male; Place of residence: Rural; Religion: Hindu; Caste: Schedule Caste; Wealth Index: Poorer & poorest; Standard of living: Low; Women education: No formal education; Father Education: No formal Education; Mother Occupation: Non-Working; Father Occupation: Non-Working; Mother Smoking: No; Mother Anemia: Severe; Prenatal Care: No; Antenatal Care: Home; Information regarding complications in pregnancy: No; Pregnancy Health Nutrition Education: No; and Breastfeeding Health Nutrition: No. Size of Child at birth: Above average; Place of delivery: Home; Breastfeeding: No; Immunization: No; Pregnancy Complication: No and Birth Interval: <24 months. ; Child age in months: < 1 month and Birth Interval: < 24 months.