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Table 1 Distribution of covariates across birth order (1–5) of children and their percentage of deaths in parenthesis

From: Maternal factors contributing to under-five mortality at birth order 1 to 5 in India: a comprehensive multivariate study

Variables Category Birth order
  Total 1 (16567) 2 (14409) 3 (8318) 4 (5021) 5 (3034)
Mother’s age at index child Continuous 23.7 ± 4.2 25.8 ± 4.3 27.4 ± 4.3 29 ± 4.3 31 ± 4.5
Gender of child Male 8474(6.3) 7521(4.4) 4447(5) 2621(5.6) 1556(5.8)
Female 8093(5) 6888(4.6) 3871(5.1) 2400(7.0) 1478(8.3)
Place of residence Rural 9282(6.9) 8366(5.2) 5429(5.4) 3484(6.5) 2246(6.9)
Urban 7285(4.1) 6043(3.5) 2889(4.3) 1537(5.8) 788(7.2)
Religion Hindu 12062(5.8) 10409(4.7) 5678(5.1) 3213(6.9) 1876(7.7)
Muslim 2231(6) 2062(3.9) 1450(5.8) 1026(4.1) 660(5.3)
Christian 1431(3.9) 1238(3.9) 827(3.6) 585(6.2) 377(6.1)
Others 830(5.2) 684(3.5) 358(4.5) 191(6.8) 115(8.7)
Type of caste Scheduled caste 2759(6.8) 2543(5.9) 1591(5.9) 962(7.3) 594(7.9)
Scheduled tribe 2204(6.7) 1924(5.2) 1437(5.0) 1074(7.1) 705(6.5)
Other backward classes 5298(6.0) 4714(4.4) 2794(4.8) 1644(6.0) 1038(7.2)
Others 5634(4.4) 4676(3.5) 2140(4.5) 1122(4.9) 586(6.8)
Wealth index Poorest 1890(10.8) 1872(7.2) 1597(6.2) 1303(8.1) 969(7.8)
Poorer 2412(8.7) 2287(7.0) 1713(7.2) 1194(5.9) 776(5.4)
Middle 3231(6.5) 2945(4.4) 1854(4.4) 1115(4.9) 649(8.3)
Richer 4048(4.1) 3569(3.8) 1859(3.8) 930(6.9) 444(4.1)
Richest 4986(2.9) 3736(2.2) 1295(3.5) 479(4.0) 196(7.7)
Standard of living Low 2554(9.8) 2677(6.9) 2184(6.7) 1745(7.4) 1232(8.4)
Medium 4531(6.4) 4302(5.1) 2888(4.6) 1814(6.1) 1122(6.6)
High 7372(3.7) 6077(2.5) 2642(3.9) 1152(5.4) 566(5.8)
Mother’s education No formal education 4122(9.4) 4468(7.4) 3879(6.1) 3099(6.8) 2143(7.4)
Primary 2242(7.4) 2160(5.1) 1438(5.6) 742(5.7) 405(6.2)
Secondary 8058(4.2) 6374(2.9) 2721(3.5) 1112(5.1) 471(6.2)
Higher 2144(2.1) 1407(1.2) 280(2.5) 68(4.4) 15(6.7)
Father’s education No formal education 2409(9.7) 2598(6.9) 2180(5.7) 1734(6.8) 1286(7.4)
Primary 2016(7.9) 1967(6.2) 1362(5.9) 892(6.7) 531(7.7)
Secondary 8944(4.9) 7532(4.0) 4037(4.7) 2091(5.9) 1073(6.5)
Higher 3010(3.0) 2171(1.9) 645(3.1) 247(3.6) 100(4.0)
Mother’s occupation Non-working 12080(5.1) 9836(3.8) 5059(4.8) 2770(5.8) 1531(6.5)
Service 2079(5.2) 1995(5.1) 1192(5.6) 770(7.0) 472(8.9)
Agriculture 2400(8.8) 2564(6.5) 2057(5.4) 1480(6.8) 1031(6.9)
Father’s occupation Non-working 243(6.6) 133(2.3) 75(5.3) 45(4.4) 18(11.1)
Service 12626(5.1) 10908(4.2) 5881(5.1) 3336(6.2) 1904(7.1)
Agriculture 3610(7.5) 3315(5.5) 2332(4.7) 1625(6.4) 1100(6.8)
Mother’s anemia level Severe 218(7.8) 211(10.9) 134(11.2) 98(10.2) 70(12.9)
Moderate 2415(7.7) 2119(6.6) 1222(6.5) 770(8.3) 518(9.7)
Mild 5801(5.9) 5050(4.4) 3045(5.2) 1873(5.8) 1094(5.9)
Not anaemic 6603(5.0) 5729(3.8) 3085(4.1) 1727(5.6) 1000(6.7)
Prenatal care No 945(5.8) 1194(5.1) 1271(3.5) 1040(4.6) 828(3.9)
Yes 944(3) 4676(3.5) 2140(4.5) 1122(4.9) 586(6.8)
Antenatal care Home 757(4.5) 880(2.3) 538(3.5) 308(2.6) 178(5.1)
Govt. hospital 3876(3.4) 4432(2.8) 2598(3) 1499(3.6) 780(5.4)
Private hospital 4606(2.4) 4219(1.9) 1752(2.2) 858(4.2) 433(3.5)
Village/NGO 188(3.7) 188(2.7) 126(0.8) 53(1.9) 33(3.0)
Information regarding complications in pregnancy No 6294(3.6) 6735(2.4) 3746(2.8) 2103(3.9) 1193(4.9)
Yes 3148(1.9) 2993(2.2) 1276(2.4) 619(3.1) 233(3.9)
Pregnancy health Nutrition education No 1574(4.1) 1371(3.6) 915(3.6) 534(5.1) 352(5.4)
Yes 1474(4.6) 1368(3.4) 765(3.3) 415(3.6) 211(4.7)
Breastfeeding health nutrition education No 1300(1.9) 1131(2.2) 764(2.1) 450(2.4) 279(4.3)
Yes 1090(1.5) 1049(2.4) 582(2.2) 309(2.3) 163(5.5)
Size of child at birth Very large 592(6.6) 577(3.8) 308(4.9) 191(6.8) 109(2.8)
Larger than average 3181(4.8) 2848(3.9) 1519(4.1) 880(3.9) 527(6.3)
Average 9040(4.5) 8008(3.6) 4725(4.4) 2853(5.3) 1689(6.7)
Smaller than average 2425(6.2) 1932(5.4) 1140(6.1) 705(5.3) 442(7.5)
Very small 1056(10.9) 801(11.4) 467(10.7) 295(15.3) 211(13.3)
Place of delivery At home 6115(7.9) 7019(5.7) 5406(5.5) 3716(6.1) 2423(6.8)
At Hospital/others 10418(4.1) 7372(3.2) 2906(4.2) 1300(6.2) 607(7.6)
Assistance at delivery No 35(25.7) 58(3.4) 64(3.1) 53(9.4) 53(0)
Yes 16495(5.4) 14327(4.4) 8247(5) 4961(6.1) 2976(7.1)
Breastfeeding No 5457(9) 5474(6.5) 2942(8.0) 1762(10.2) 1034(12.3)
Yes 11110(4.0) 8935(3.2) 5376(3.4) 3259(4.1) 2000(4.3)
Immunization No 7333(5.3) 6099(4.4) 3260(5.1) 1785(6.7) 1029(6.7)
Yes 1813(4.1) 1296(2.5) 595(4.0) 287(6.3) 153(5.2)
Child age in months <1 month 3844(16.9) 3127(12.8) 1725(12.7) 1055(15.6) 627(17.4)
1- 12 months 3390(6.7) 2993(6.3) 1720(8.5) 912(11.6) 609(11.7)
> 12 months 9333(0.6) 8289(0.7) 4873(1.1) 3054(1.4) 1798(1.8)
Birth interval < 24 months --- 4204(6.5) 2197(7.9) 1291(10.1) 756(11.8)
24-36 months --- 4707(4.0) 2964(4.5) 1833(5.7) 1150(6.9)
>36 months --- 5380(3.1) 3152(3.6) 1896(4.1) 1128(4.0)
Region North 3009(4.8) 2717(4.3) 1589(5) 856(6.5) 487(6)
Central 2969(8.9) 2744(6) 1978(7.4) 1428(7.4) 989(9.8)
East 2566(7.3) 2083(5.2) 1301(5.4) 854(5.6) 541(5.9)
North East 2965(4.5) 2422(4.6) 1573(4.7) 1083(6.5) 628(5.6)
West 2191(3.8) 1825(3.6) 832(4.2) 389(5.7) 214(4.7)
South 2867(4.3) 2618(3) 1045(3.8) 411(3.2) 175(5.7)