Table 3 Mean percent of kinds of materials read by Indian (N= 313) and U.S. (N= 410) engineering students

Primary Sources Secondary Sources
Non-Fiction Journal/Article Fiction Textbook Manual; Handbook; Guidebook; Reference Website Handout Magazine; Newspaper Student Class Notes Unknown Source SUM
Indian Students 5.33 4.44 13.10 52.72 6.22 3.98 3.55 4.55 5.33 0.78 100.00
U.S. Studentsa 6.33 1.04 3.92 61.69 1.94 1.56 2.56 1.27 3.46 15.93 100.00
MEAN 5.83 2.74 8.51 57.21 4.08 2.77 3.06 2.91 4.40 8.36 100.00
z-testb 0.41 n.a.c 4.36*** 2.35* 2.82* 1.72 0.56 2.51* 1.00 n.a.
Mean Percent of Purposes for Reading
Answer Question Set/Homework Exam/Quiz Essay/Paper Preview/Review (Before or after class) Lab Expand Knowledge (Beyond what was presented in class) Applications of what was presented in class. Pragmatic (to some academic end, e.g. raise GPA) Fun/Pleasure Current Events/Curiosity Presentation/Project SUM
Indian Students 7.66 33.30 0.44 13.54 2.44 8.44 0.22 6.88 18.42 8.66 100.00
U.S. Students 31.94 22.64 2.37 6.46 0 23.24 0.76 4.37 4.79 3.43 100.00
MEAN 19.80 27.97 1.41 10.00 1.22 15.84 0.49 5.63 11.61 6.05 100.00
z-test 7.80*** 2.91** n.a. 3.23** n.a. 5.13*** n.a. 1.29 5.61*** 2.89**
1. aU.S. data adapted from Taraban (2011). bThe z-test is a difference test for two proportions, here comparing Indian and U.S. students columnwise. cBecause of statistical restrictions, tests were not conducted if either percent was based on a frequency less than 5. A p-value is considered significant if less than .05. Tests are two-tailed.
2. *** p < .001.
3. ** p < .01.
4. *p < .05.