Cycle-by-cycle and breath-by-breath temporal resolutions of the EMG and volume of oxygen uptake signals. (A) Visual representation of 30 seconds of data during a change in workload (power output; solid black line) and the total EMG intensity (EMG; red line) and volume of oxygen uptake (O2; blue line) responses. The cycle-by-cycle figure shows the individual pedal cycles (vertical lines) and the cycle-by-cycle variation in the EMG that is matched well with variation in power output at this temporal resolution. Moving from cycle-by-cycle to the breath-by-breath temporal resolution (mean EMG and power output between breaths) the EMG and power output curves are smoothed since there were 3.19 ± 0.27 pedal cycles per breath across all workloads. Also shown is the time delay (dashed lines) of 28.33 ± 4.31 seconds between a change in the EMG signal and power output and the subsequent change inO2. (B) A global perspective over 110 seconds moving from raw EMG sampled at 2000 Hz to cycle-by-cycle temporal resolution at approximately 1.58 Hz at 95 pedal revolutions per minute (rpm) to breath-by-breath temporal resolution at approximately 0.50 Hz at 30 breaths per minute (bpm). This clearly shows the cycle-by-cycle variation of the EMG and power output that is reduced moving to breath-by-breath resolution, while the primary features of the underlying kinetics are preserved. The processed EMG, power output andO2 values have been normalized to the mean across the 110 seconds of data, while the raw EMG is normalized to the absolute maximum.