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Table 2 Evolution of the openness coefficient (OI) and import penetration (IP) and exports ratio

From: Assessing labor market impacts of trade opening in Uruguay

Year 0I IP X/GDP
1988 0.49 0.25 0.24
1989 0.52 0.26 0.26
1990 0.55 0.26 0.30
1991 0.58 0.29 0.29
1992 0.63 0.34 0.30
1993 0.70 0.39 0.31
1994 0.76 0.43 0 34
1995 0.75 0.42 0 33
1996 0.79 0.44 0 35
1997 0.85 0.48 0 38
1998 0.85 0.49 0 36
1999 0.82 0.48 0 34
2000 0.86 0,48 0 37
2001 0.81 0.47 0 35
  1. OI: openness coefficient defined as (Exports + Imports)/GDP and IP: import penetration ratio defined as M/GDP and the export ratio is defined as Exports/GDP.
  2. Source: own elaboration based on data from the Uruguayan Central Bank (Banco Central del Uruguay).