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Table 1 Listing of all conducted linear mixed effect models “lme”

From: Male reproductive traits of full-sibs of different age classes in three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus)

Dependent variables Explanatory variable male age Explanatory variable body size AIC male age AIC body size Sample size (N)
  χ2 p-value χ2 p-value    Young Old
Body size [cm] 47.842 <0.001 / / 61.707 / 60 101
Body mass [g] 39.942 <0.001 / / −90.424 / 60 101
Body condition 0.448 0.503 / / −315.952 / 60 101
Red area [%] 0.192 0.662 5.245 0.022 607.296 602.243 59 101
Carotenoid chroma (A) 5.312 0.021 4.447 0.035 −59.083 -58.218 59 99
UV chroma (A) 11.091 <0.001 0.855 0.355 −538.148 −527.912 59 99
Red/orange hue (A) [nm] 3.985 0.046 1.269 0.260 43316.630 43319.350 59 99
Total brightness (A) 8.210 0.004 6.903 0.009 −1240.811 −1239.504 59 99
Total brightness (R) 16.374 <0.001 1.595 0.207 262.555 277.334 59 101
Absolute testis mass [g] 54.517 <0.001 76.359 <0.001 −452.293 −474.135 60 96
Relative testis mass (GSI) 20.887 <0.001 3.304 0.069 45.989 63.572 60 96
Testis melanisation (L*total) 64.591 <0.001 19.391 <0.001 1955.718 2008.869 60 96
Sperm number 4.256 0.039 11.441 <0.001 223.120 207.984 59 99
Head length [μm] 73.952 <0.001 15.977 <0.001 −277.861 −219.886 60 22
Tail length [μm] 11.816 <0.001 6.773 0.009 −163.597 −158.555 60 22
Head width [μm] 53.729 <0.001 9.646 0.002 −303.683 −259.599 60 22
Mid-piece width [μm] 4.268 0.039 0.676 0.411 −271.444 −267.852 60 22
Mid-piece volume [μm3] 9.003 0.003 3.934 0.047 −298.985 −293.916 60 22
Mid-piece length [μm] 2.537 0.111 2.369 0.124 −225.356 −225.187 60 22
Head to tail length ratio 0.052 0.819 0.036 0.849 −540.046 -540.030 60 22
  1. (A) colour measurements were made directly below the eye (breeding coloration).
  2. (R) measurements were taken at the dorsum below the first dorsal spine.
  3. (GSI) gonadosomatic index after de Vlaming et al. (1982).
  4. (L*total) testis brightness (see Mehlis et al. 2012 for details).
  5. In all models family identity was included as random factor and never removed to control for possible ancestral influences. The model with the lowest AIC (Akaike's information criterion) value represents the best approximating model.