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Table 3 Performance comparisons of PSO, DE, TLBO, OTLBO

From: A teaching learning based optimization based on orthogonal design for solving global optimization problems

No. Function Global min/max   PSO DE TLBO OTLBO
f 1 Step f min  = 0 Mean 203.3667 0 0 0
Std 56.2296 0 0 0
f 2 Sphere f min  = 0 Mean 6.1515e-09 7.2140e-14 1.0425e-281 0
Std 7.6615e-10 5.8941e-14 0 0
f 3 SumSquares f min  = 0 Mean 3.7584e-14 6.1535e-15 1.5997e-281 0
Std 1.0019e-14 3.0555e-15 0 0
f 4 Quartic f min  = 0 Mean 1.9275 0.0253 2.3477e-04 1.6911e-05
Std 1.4029 0.0075 1.7875e-04 1.2211e-05
f 5 Zakharov f min  = 0 Mean 141.0112 66.8339 1.4515e-281 0
Std 40.7567 14.4046 0 0
f 6 Schwefel 1.2 f min  = 0 Mean 9.3619e-08 5.3494e-13 2.6061e-270 0
Std 6.6112e-08 4.6007e-13 0 0
f 7 Schwefel 2.22 f min  = 0 Mean 9.3293 3.9546e-07 3.1583e-137 2.1123e-221
Std 3.6619 1.9283e-07 1.7188e-137 0
f 8 Schwefel 2.21 f min  = 0 Mean 60.9603 1.5340 4.3819e-136 4.0091e-215
Std 4.0761 0.3900 1.5668e-136 0
f 9 Bohachevsky1 f min  = 0 Mean 0 0 0 0
Std 0 0 0 0
f 10 Bohachevsky2 f min  = 0 Mean 0 0 0 0
Std 0 0 0 0
f 11 Bohachevsky3 f min  = 0 Mean 0 0 0 0
Std 0 0 0 0
f 12 Booth f min  = 0 Mean 0 0 0 0
Std 0 0 0 0
f 13 Rastrigin f min  = 0 Mean 76.2918 5.6344 0 0
Std 17.1005 1.8667 0 0
f 14 Schaffer f min  = 0 Mean 0.0097 0.0029 0.0066 0
Std 0.0025 0.0011 0.0045 0
f 15 Six hump camel back f min  = − 1.03163 Mean −1.0316 −1.0316 −1.0316 −1.0316
Std 0 0 0 0
f 16 Griewank f min  = 0 Mean 7.6291e-08 5.7841e-011 0 0
Std 4.0012e-09 1.6914e-011 0 0
f 17 Ackley f min  = 0 Mean 14.0614 7.3814e-08 1.7171e-15 1.1123e-15
Std 2.0125 3.0453e-08 1.5979e-15 1.0021e-15
f 18 Multimod f min  = 0 Mean 2.1994e-257 2.5678e-255 0 0
Std 0 0 0 0
f 19 Noncontinuous rastrigin f min  = 0 Mean 100.3984 13.9237 0 0
Std 28.7062 2.3146 0 0
f 20 Weierstrass f min  = 0 Mean 12.0447 1.5388e-05 0 0
    Std 2.6160 1.0139e-05 0 0