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Table 2 Most common diagnoses in Estonia for which antibiotics are prescribed, guideline recommendations and the selection of drugs by physician speciality – percentage of prescriptions for specific diagnosis by speciality and No of prescriptions

From: Antibiotic prescription preferences in paediatric outpatient setting in Estonia and Sweden

Diagnosis (Total No of prescriptions) Primary recommendation in guidelines Alternative recommendation in guidelines GPs Paediatricians Ear, nose and throat physicians
Acute bronchitis (n = 31,670) Antibiotics not indicated NA Clarithromycin (45%; n = 11,658) Clarithromycin (50.5%; n = 2,342) Clarithromycin (59%; n = 39)
    Amoxicillin (28%; n = 7,243) Amoxicillin (22%; n = 1,040) Amoxicillin + clavulanic acid (9%; n = 418) Amoxicillin (18%; n = 12) Amoxicillin + clavulanic acid (9% n = 6)
    Amoxicillin + clavulanic acid (10%; n = 2,486)
Non-suppurative otitis media ( n = 26,130) Amoxicillin or penicillin Macrolide if penicillin allergy Amoxicillin (46%; n = 7,616) Amoxicillin (49%; n = 1,432) Amoxicillin (41%; n = 2,522)
    Amoxicillin + clavulanic acid (24%; n = 3,859) Amoxicillin + clavulanic acid (17%; n = 497) Amoxicillin + clavulanic acid (21%; n = 1306)
    Cefprozil (11%; n = 1,757) Cefuroxim (13%; n = 381) Cefprozil (12%; n = 742)
Acute tonsillitis (n = 18,890) Phenoxymethylpenicillin or amoxicillin Macrolide if penicillin allergy Amoxicillin (30%; n = 4,443) Phenoxymethylpenicillin (27%; n = 719) Clarithromycin (24%; n = 228) Cefadroxil (16%; n = 145) Amoxicillin + clavulanic acid (14%; n = 131)
    Cefadroxil (18%; n = 2,598) Amoxicillin (27%; n = 719) Amoxicillin + clavulanic acid (13%; n = 339)  
    Phenoxymethylpenicillin (15%; n = 2,201)