Obesity is recognized as an international health problem in both developed and developing societies. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the prevalence of obesity in Bahrain was put at 21.2% and 35.2% among males and females respectively. The mean body mass index (BMI) increased dramatically from 24 kg/m2 to 28 kg/m2 and from 25.6 kg/m2 to 29.3 kg/m2 for male and female respectively between the periods of 1980 to 2008 (World HealthOrganization 2011). In the USA, it is estimated that over 130 million adults are overweight or obese. Obesity is now considered to be the most common cause of death, resulting in 300,000 deaths annually, approximately 14% of all deaths (World HealthOrganization 2011). Once an individual becomes obese, the risk of developing a co-morbid illness such as diabetes mellitus (DM), hypertension (HTN), and hyperlipidemia increase significantly (Wang et al.2008). The risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), for example, has been shown to increase approximately 40-fold as BMI increases from <23 kg/m2 to> 35 kg/m2. (Pontiroli 2008).
The WHO has recognized the impact of obesity on health and quality of life and thus recommended that studies of health changes associated with weight loss should be a research priority (Leonardo et al.1997). Other Organizations such as the National Institutes of Health, and surgeons in general, recognize the severity of obesity and its related co-morbid illnesses (Dixon & O’Brien 2002). They also acknowledge the impact of obesity on health, functioning, and well-being (Karmali et al.2011). This has resulted in a worldwide increase in bariatric surgery (Ahroni et al.2005).
Bariatric surgery is a common treatment for morbid obesity. Currently the two most common surgical procedures are laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) and laparoscopic Roux-en Y gastric bypass (LRYGBP). LRYGBP is the most common bariatric surgery in the USA whereas in Europe and Australia, LAGB is more common (Korenkov et al.2007). Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) is seen as a simple and safe surgical procedure in individuals with morbid obesity, with satisfactory weight loss, improvement in co-morbidities and significant improvement in quality-of-life (Korenkov et al.2007).
Weight loss post bariatric surgery including laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding seems to have a major impact on obesity and its related illnesses (Kinzl et al.2007). Further research, especially long-term follow-up studies is required to assess the effectiveness and safety of LAGB. Moreover, further research of under-studied populations such as in the Middle East is required for LAGB. The major purpose of the present study, therefore, was to evaluate the impact of laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding on weight reduction, BMI decrease and obesity related illnesses such as diabetes, hypertension, and hyperlipedimia in patients in Bahrain in a 5 year follow-up.