Natural radioactivity levels of some medicinal plants commonly used in Ghana
© Tettey-Larbi et al. licensee Springer. 2013
Received: 1 November 2012
Accepted: 1 April 2013
Published: 11 April 2013
Natural radioactivity levels in some selected medicinal plants commonly used in Ghana from the Centre for Scientific Research into Plant Medicine were investigated to determine the activity concentration and the annual committed effective dose due to naturally occurring radionuclides of 238U, 232Th and 40K. The activity concentration was determined using gamma-ray spectrometry. The results of the analysis indicated an average activity concentration of 238U, 232Th and 40K in the medicinal plants to be 31.8±2.8 Bq kg-1, 56.2±2.3 Bq kg-1 and 839.8±11.9 Bq kg-1 respectively. Khaya ivorensis recorded the highest activity concentration of 238U and 232Th while Lippia multiflora recorded the highest activity concentrations of 40K. The total annual committed effective doses ranged from 0.026±0.001 to 0.042±0.002 mSv a-1 with an average value of 0.035±0.001 mSv a-1. The average annual committed effective dose due to ingestion of the natural radionuclides in the medicinal plant samples were far below the world average annual committed effective dose of 0.3 mSv a-1 for ingestion of natural radionuclides provided in UNSCEAR 2000 report. Therefore, the radiological hazard associated with intake of the natural radionuclides in the medicinal plants is insignificant. The results provide baseline values which may be useful in establishing rules and regulations relating to radiation protection as well as developing standards and guidelines for the use of medicinal or herbal plants to the appropriate authorities.
KeywordsMedicinal plants Natural radioactivity Gamma-ray spectrometry Annual committed effective dose
Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMS) are found in every constituent of the environment; air, water, soil, food and in humans. According to the International Food Safety Authorities Network (INFOSAN 2011), plants used as food commonly have 40K, 232Th and 238U and their progenies. It is expected that likewise would be found in plants used for medicinal purposes since plants are the primary pathway of natural radionuclides entering into the human body through the food chain. Radionuclides and their decay products from 238U and 232Th series together with 40K are terrestrial primordial radionuclides, which originated from the earth’s crust and are the sources of natural radioactivity in the environment (Kessaratikoon and Awaekechi 2008).
All over the world, raw parts of plants and their extracts are used in the medicinal products. It is also estimated that 25% of modern medicines are derived from medicinal plants of which most of them are flowering plants (Gurib-Fakim and Kasilo 2010). There are over 250,000 flowering plant species that serve as resources for the production of new drugs, orthodox or traditional. The World Health Organisation (WHO) define traditional medicine as comprising therapeutic practices that have been in existence, often for hundreds of years, before the development and spread of modern medicine and are still in use today (WHO 1991).
A survey by the WHO indicates that about 70 – 80% of the world population rely on traditional medicine mainly from plant sources due to the increasing emphasis on advocacy on Primary Health Care or Basic Health Care (Brown 1992); (WHO 1998). In Ghana, 70% of the populations rely on herbal medicines where the Practitioner to Patient ratio is 1:400 in case of traditional medicine as against 1:12000 in modern medicine even though the lack of scientific proof of the effects of traditional medicine has often made scientists doubt their efficacy (Serfor-Armah et al. 2003); (Haq 2004); (Owusu-Afriyie 2005). However, plant based medicines present a high efficacy, safety and lesser side effects and offer remedy for age-related disorders like memory loss, osteoporosis, immune disorders for which no modern medicine is available (Kamboj 2000).
The therapeutic effect of these medicinal plants for the treatment of various diseases is based on the organic constituent (such as essential oil, vitamins, glycosides, etc.) present in them (Desideri et al. 2009), although, certain inorganic elements (example Al, Br, Ca, Cl, Mn, Mg, etc.) have been considered as essential in the formation of active constituent which are responsible for the curative properties of the medicinal plants (Serfor-Armah et al. 2001). These stable inorganic elements like the unstable ones (radioactive element) find their way into these plants during the process of photosynthesis. Natural radionuclides are transferred and cycles through natural processes and between the various environmental compartment by entering into the ecosystem and food chain through direct or indirect contamination of natural radionuclides (Adewumi 2011). This processes involving photosynthesis include the absorption of soluble radionuclides in soil-water by root uptake, direct deposition from the atmosphere and re-suspended natural radionuclide from the soil. The main factors controlling the rate of plant root uptake of natural radionuclides are the uptake potential for different natural radionuclides and the availability of natural radionuclides in the soil. The rate of natural radionuclides uptake is highly dependent on the activity concentration in the soil. Also, the root uptake depends on soil properties such as pH, mineralogical composition, organic matter content and nutrient status as well as metabolic and physiological characteristic of the plant species (IAEA 2006). Obviously, plants uptake of radionuclides is one of many vectors for the migration of natural radionuclides into humans from the environment via the food chain.
The study of the radioactivity levels of plants in the environment are of interest within ecological and plant evolution under certain conditions of geochemical point of view and adaptation and it thus provide information in the monitoring of environmental radioactivity (Mukhammedov and Tillaeva 2005). The study of NORMS in plants is also not only important because of the risk associated with it but also from the fact that some of them can be used as biochemical tracer in the human food chain.
The role of NORMS in animal and plant metabolism has long been established and available in literature, but the effect and influence of these NORMS on administration of medicinal plants had received relatively little attention without due regard to possible side effects possibly because medicinal plants or herbal plants are not considered in the group of edible plants that have been studied in the past by nutritionist, although many edible plants used as spices or fruits such as ginger, onion, pawpaw and mango etc., have medicinal properties and the ingestion of NORMS through the use of medicinal plants had not been recognized or considered significant in terms of quantity. These factors have therefore contributed little or no information on the levels of the natural radioactive materials constituent of these medicinal or herbal plants preparation and their extracts in Ghana.
Epidemiological studies have not demonstrated adverse health effects in individuals exposed to small doses (< 0.1 Sv) delivered in a period of many years with the exception of radiogenic health effects (primarily cancer) which is evident in epidemiological studies for only doses exceeding 0.05-0.1 Sv delivered at high dose rates (HPS 2004). However the linear non-threshold (LNT) model indicates levels of risk to all levels of radiation (ICRP 1991 2005). Although, some scientists believe that since humans evolved and survived through this evolutionalised environment which consists of some levels of radiation, some low levels of radiation are beneficial to the human (Hormesis) (Cuttler 2004).
Medicinal plants are administered in their raw form or in formulations such as solutions, tablets or capsules. Undoubtedly, the activity concentrations of NORMS in herbal formulations are quite lower than in the raw plants due to the preparation processes which inevitably remove some of the radionuclides. The health effects of radiation exposures to NORMS from intake of medicinal plants and herbal preparations in relation to the levels of NORMS in medicinal plants may be associated with most forms of leukemia and with cancer of many organs such as the bone, lung, breast and thyroid in the long term, but not with all organs including prostate. Example; approximately 10-15% of 210Pb and 214Pb ions, 99% of 226Ra and 228Ra, 214Bi (bone seeker) and 210Po (soluble) reaches the blood and/or the lung fluid stream and are distributed to the whole body and exchanged with calcium in the mineral of skeletal tissues thereby making blood, bone and lung critical organs (UNSCEAR 1988 2000); (Cember and Johnson 2009). Also, 238U has affinity for electron donor (e.g. oxygen) and therefore deposits itself in the tissues of the lung and lining on the bones marrows which can lead to cancer of the blood (leukemia). 232Th which is also an alpha particle emitter settles in the lining of the bones which can lead to bone cancer (Cember and Johnson 2009). Although 40K is not considered to be of radiological significance, the body’s control system of blood pressure and volume is dependent on the activity concentration of potassium in the body and an abnormality in the control of this activity concentration level in the body by the body system presents a general potential for High Blood Pressure and subsequent cancer induction with a lifetime cancer Mortality Risk of 0 814Bq-1 for ingestion (ANL 2005). However, studies have shown that the total amount of potassium in the human body is maintained constant at a fixed body mass. The activity concentration of K-40 in potassium in plants extracts and raws is not different from those in foods or in the human body. Intake of additional potassium through food intake simply results in a reduction in the biological half-life of potassium in the body and resultantly no increase in the dose from K-40. This implies that potassium is homeostatic within the body (Tahir and Alaamer 2008); (Tahir et al. 2010).
The objectives of this study are to determine the specific activity concentrations and the annual effective doses due to ingestion of NORM due to 238U, 232Th and 40K present in some selected medicinal plants commonly used in Ghana from the Centre for Scientific Research into Plant Medicine (CSRPM) at Mampong-Akuapem in the Eastern Region and to assess the radiological risk associated with the use of these medicinal plants.
Materials and methods
The sampling area
The choice of the sampling site was an important factor in this study. Prominence was placed on the choice of a clinic that has the highest production and use of medicinal plants in Ghana. The Centre for Scientific Research into Plant Medicine (CSRPM) was established in 1975 by the Government of Ghana through the pioneering work of Dr. Oku Ampofo, a Ghanaian allopathic medical practitioner. Today, it is a leading research institution in Africa and its core business is into Research and Development of herbal medicines in Ghana and Africa as a whole (CSRPM 2011).
The Centre is located at 5° 55' 04.58"N and 0° 08'02.89"W at an elevation of 1,488 ft and an eye altitude of 1,575 ft (Google Earth 2012) in the mountainous forest savanna vegetation area of Mampong, Eastern Region of Ghana. The centre is off Mampong-Akropong road, which lies within the wet semi-equatorial zone, characterized by double maxima rainfall in June and October with relatively low temperatures and high humidity through the year.
The Centre offers the following services: clinical laboratory services, production and dispensing of herbal medicines to patients, raising of medicinal plant seedlings for sale to out growers, formulation and production of herbal extracts for industries, safety, efficacy and quality assessment of herbal products from manufacturers and herbal practitioners and provision of library and internet café for research into plant medicine.
Physical data of plant samples used
Name of plant sample
Local name (Akan)
Part of plant sampled
Hypertension, lactation failure, insomia, conjunctivitis,
Prostatic hypertrophy, measles
Menstrual pain, abdominal pain, (Pain killer)
Improve sex hormones (low sperm count), STD, Stroke
Malaria, rheumatism, boil
The samples were open air dried on trays for a period of one week and then oven dried at a temperature of 105°C (± 5°C) for 2 to 4 hours at the laboratory. The oven dried samples were then grounded into fine powder with a stainless steel ball grinder. The prepared samples, in powdered form, were packed into weighed one (1) liter Marinelli plastic beaker, hermetically sealed, reweighed and stored prior to counting (Scheibel and Appoloni 2007); (Changizi et al. 2010); (Olatunde et al. 2011). The containers were sealed to avoid any possibility of out-gassing of radon and kept for a period of 1 month to make sure the samples attained radioactive equilibrium between Ra-226 and its decay products in the uranium series, and Ra-228 and its decay products in the thorium series (Tahir and Alaamer 2009).
Analysis of the medicinal plant samples
The samples were counted using a gamma-ray spectrometry. The gamma-ray spectrometry system consists of an N-type high purity germanium (HPGe) detector Model GR 2518 (Canberra Industries Incorporated) with a relative efficiency of Twenty-five percent (25%) to NaI detector, 1.8 keV energy resolution (FWHM) at energy peak of 1333 keV of 60Co isotope, a peak-to-Compton ration of 55:1. The bias voltage of -3000 V was supplied by a HV Power Supply (Model 13103) through an Uninterrupted Power Supply (UPS). The detector was cooled in liquid nitrogen at -196°C (77K) provided in a 25 liter Dewar with ambient temperature around the detector being between 16°C and 27°C. The detector was connected to a Spectroscopy Amplifier (model 2020, Canberra Industries Incorporated) and a computer based PCA-MR 8192 ACCUSPEC Multi-Channel Analyzer (MCA) and a Microsoft soft window software ORTEC MAESTRO-32 for spectrum acquisition, evaluation and analysis. The detector was mounted in a cylindrical lead shield with internal diameter of 24 cm, thickness of 5 cm and a height of 60 cm. The lead shield consist of a 0.3 cm thick each of various layers of copper, cadmium and plexiglass.
The energy and efficiency calibration of the system was carried out before sample analysis using the multinuclide reference standard solution supplied by the International Atomic Energy Agency, IAEA. This was to enable identification and quantification of the radionuclides. The standard and the sample were counted for a period of 36,000 seconds to acquire spectral data for a better counting statistics and evaluation. The activity concentration of 238U, 232Th and 40K were determined after correction for background and inhomogeneities (Oresengun et al. 1993); (Gilmore and Hemingway 1995).
The specific activity concentration of 238U, 232Th and 40K in the medicinal plants were determined from the quantitative analysis of the spectra acquired from the Gamma-ray spectrometry using the Gamma-ray spectrum analysis software, Ortec MAESTRO–32 at specific energies. 238U was calculated from the average of 214Pb at energies of 251.9 keV and 295.2 keV and 214Bi at energies of 609.3 keV and 1764.5 keV. 232Th was determined from the average of 208Tl at energies of 2614.5 keV and 583.2 keV, 212Pb at the energy of 238.6 keV and 228Ac at the energy of 911.2 keV and 40K at 1460.0 keV.
where; N sam (E,i) is the net counts for the radionuclide i at energy E, ε γ (E) is the photopeak efficiency at energy E, T c is the counting live-time (s), Pγ(E, i) is the gamma emission probability of the radionuclide i for a transition at energy E, M sam is the dry-weight of samples (kg).
Where DCF ing is the dose convection factor for ingestion, for each radionuclide (i.e., 4.5 × 10-5 mSv Bq-1, 2.3 × 10-4 mSv Bq-1 and 6.2 × 10-6 mSv Bq-1 for 238U, 232Th and 40K respectively for an adult (UNSCEAR 2000), I p is the consumption rate from intake of NORMS in medicinal plants and A sp is the activity concentration in the plant sample.
Generally in Ghana, the average percentage plant material in grams used in herbal preparation or products is five percent (5%) of which the average dosage is two (2) table spoons full (30 ml), three (3) times daily (Personal communication, Appiah A. A. 2012). This means that, for every 100 ml of herbal product, 5 g of plant material is used and also since one (1) table spoon full is equivalent to 15 ml, two (2) table spoons full, three (3) times daily is equivalent to 90 ml. Therefore, on the basis of this information and the non-availability of a well-accepted consumption rate for medicinal plants, a consumption rate of 1.8 kg yr-1 was assumed for all the medicinal plants used in this study, assuming that a patient needs 100 ml day-1 (an upper average dosage) of the herbal preparation or product during the treatment period.
Results and discussions
Activity concentrations in the medicinal plants
Activity concentrations and average annual committed effective doses of 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K in the medicinal plant samples
Activity concentration (Bq kg-1)
Average annual committed Effective dose (mSv a-1)
32.2 ± 3.1
65.6 ± 3.1
1093.1 ± 13.1
0.014 ± 0.002
36.1 ± 2.8
65.5 ± 2.4
808.8 ± 12.9
0.013 ± 0.002
25.8 ± 2.2
43.0 ± 1.7
566.4 ± 7.9
0.009 ± 0.001
32.6 ± 2.6
53.3 ± 1.8
993.4 ± 12.6
0.012 ± 0.001
25.9 ± 3.0
46.9 ± 2.2
961.1 ± 11.2
0.011 ± 0.001
20.4 ± 2.0
42.0 ± 2.0
625.5 ± 10.4
0.009 ± 0.001
34.4 ± 4.6
62.4 ± 3.4
911.1 ± 17.0
0.013 ± 0.001
46.9 ± 2.1
70.6 ± 1.9
759.1 ± 9.9
0.014 ± 0.002
The variation of the activity concentration of 238U, 232Th, and 40K in the different medicinal plant samples may be due to the fact that, the activity concentrations of 238U, 232Th, and 40K differ geographically from one soil of cultivation to another and some plants also absorbs certain elements more than others. Observably, the activity concentration of these radionuclides also varies with their half-life. Thus, the longer the half-life, the higher is the activity concentration of the radionuclides. This means that, the ratio of 232Th to 238U in these medicinal plant samples would to be greater than one as reported for other environmental samples (Miah et al. 1998). However, the activity concentration of 40K is usually high compared to 238U and 232Th and forms an integral part of all organic constituents. 40K in the samples varied of the order of about 101 to 103 Bq kg-1 more than 238U and 232Th.
The high activity concentration of Potassium recorded for Lippia multiflora and Bridelia ferruginea can significantly aid in its therapeutic purposes for the treatment of High Blood Pressure since patients with High Blood Pressure have low concentration of Potassium in their blood stream (HBPI 2012). Although Bridelia ferruginea is used for the treatment of diabetes, almost all diabetic patients are hypertensive (Personal communication, Appiah A. A. 2012).
Comparison of the activity concentration of 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K in the medicinal plants from this study with those from other countries
Activity concentration ( Bq kg-1)
(Scheibel and Appoloni 2007)
(Desideri et al. 2010)
(Olatunde et al. 2011)
(Jevremovic et al. 2011)
The variations in the activity concentrations could be due to differences in the geological location of the plants and the radiochemical composition of the soils in which these medicinal plants are grown or cultivated since the levels of activity concentration of natural radionuclides are not normalized across the globe and the plants ability to absorb particular elements more than the others. The medicinal plants sampled for this study are located within the Mampong-Akuapem environs which is a mountainous forest area. It is therefore likely to exhibit high activity concentration of 238U and 232Th because of the presence of sedimentary and igneous rocks which are phosphate rich (IAEA 2003). The characteristics of the vegetation (forest area) of the area might have also contributed to the levels since the levels also depends on the soil organic matter content, soil to water ratio, site characteristics, rate and amount of rainfall, soil drainage and biochemical processes (Abu-Khadra and Eissa 2008). The high activity concentration of potassium present in the medicinal plants from Brazil (Scheibel and Appoloni 2007), the Mate tea, may be due to application of potassium containing fertilizers to the soil of cultivated area and/or the plant ability to absorb more potassium from the soil. High applications of potassium containing fertilizer are the cause of high activity concentration of 40K in most soil (Bhatti and Malik 1994). Since no potassium containing fertilizers were added to the soils of cultivation for Lippia multiflora and Bridelia ferruginea, the high activity concentration of potassium in these plants may be due to the plants ability to absorb potassium from the soil more than the other elements.
Average annual committed effective dose in the medicinal plants
However, the calculated average annual effective dose to any individual in the population group due to the ingestion of natural radionuclides in the medicinal plants is far below the average radiation dose of 0.3 mSv a-1 received per head worldwide (UNSCEAR 2000).
Natural radioactivity levels of some selected medicinal plants commonly used in Ghana from the Centre for Scientific Research into Plant medicine were investigated using gamma-ray spectrometry.
The average activity concentration obtained for 238U (31.78±2.80 Bq kg-1) and 232Th (56.16±2.32 Bq kg-1) in this study are higher compared to other published work with the exception of 40K (839.80±11.86 Bq kg-1) which recorded a lower activity concentration compared to that recorded from Brazil (Scheibel and Appoloni 2007). Khaya ivorensis recorded the highest activity concentration of 238U and 232Th whilst Lippia multiflora recorded the highest activity concentration of 40K. The high activity concentration of Potassium recorded in Lippia multiflora and Bridelia ferruginea can significantly aid in its therapeutic purposes in treating High Blood Pressure since patients with High Blood Pressure have low concentration of Potassium in their blood stream (HBPI 2012).
The corresponding average annual effective dose determined in this study to any individual’s organ or tissue in the population group due to the ingestion of natural radionuclides in the medicinal plants is far below the average radiation dose of 0.3 mSv a-1 received per head worldwide due to the ingestion of natural radionuclide (UNSCEAR 200). The result presents insignificant annual committed effective dose due to the use of these medicinal plants in Ghana from the Centre for Scientific Research into Plant Medicine. Therefore the radiological hazard associated with intake of the natural radionuclides in the medicinal plants is insignificant. Hence, the medicinal plants samples from the Centre are considered safe in terms of the radiological hazard.
The authors would like to acknowledge with thanks the assistance received from the management of Centre of Scientific Research into Plant Medicine during the period of sampling and also providing information on each medicinal plant. The authors are also grateful to the Radiation Protection Institute (RPI) of the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission for making their laboratories available for the research. The authors also appreciate the contribution of Mr. Poku-Awiah Kwame of CSRPM and Mr. D. O. Kpeglo, Mr. Oscar Adukpo, Mr. Henry Lawluvi, Mr. Charles Kansaana, Ms. Rita Kpordzro and Mr. Ibrahim Doe Ali all of RPI for their assistance in the completion of this work.
- Abu-Khadra SA, Eissa HS: Natural radionuclides in different plants, together with their corresponding soils in Egypt at Inshas region and the area nearby, IX radiation physics & protection conference. Nasr city - Cairo, National Network of Radiation Physics-Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority; 2008:239-249.Google Scholar
- Adewumi AA: Assessment of norm-containing food crops/stuffs in OML 58 & OML 61 within the Niger delta region of Nigeria Proceedings of the 1st international technology, education and environment conference, African society for scientific research (ASSR). 2011, 594-603.Google Scholar
- ANL: Potassume-40 Argonne national laboratory, EVS, human health fact sheet. 2005.Google Scholar
- Bhatti TM, Malik KA: Phosphate fertilizers a potential source for uranium recovery as by product, National institute for biotechnology and genetic engineering (NIBGE). Faisalabad Pakistan, Technical report no PAEC/NIBGE-2/1994; 1994.Google Scholar
- Brown K: Medicinal plants, indigenous medicine and conservation of biodiversity in Ghana. Centre for Social and Economic Research on Global Environment (CSERGE), Norwich, UK; 1992. working paper GEC:92–36Google Scholar
- Cember H, Johnson TE: Introduction to health physics Fourth edition. McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., USA; 2009.Google Scholar
- Changizi V, Jafarpoor Z, Naseri M: Measurement of 226Ra, 228Ra, 137Cs and 40K in edible parts of two types of leafy vegetables cultivated in Tehran province-Iran and resultant annual ingestion radiation dose. Iran J Radiat Res 2010, 8(2):103-110.Google Scholar
- CSRPM: Homepage website Retrieved 16th September. 2011. 2011, from the World Wide: http://www.csrpm.org Google Scholar
- Cuttler JM: What becomes of nuclear risk assessment in light of radiation hormesis? Proceedings of the 25th annual conference of the Canadian nuclear society. Canadian Nuclear Society, Toronto; 2004.Google Scholar
- Desideri D, Meli MA, Roselli C: Determination of essential and non-essential element in some medicinal plants by polarized. X ray fluoresc spectrometer Microchem J 2009, 95(2010):174-180. 10.1016/j.microc.2009.11.010Google Scholar
- Desideri D, Meli MA, Roselli C: Natural and artificial radioactivity determination of some medicinal plants. Journal of environmental radioactivity 2010, 101: 751-756. 10.1016/j.jenvrad.2010.04.018View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ebaid YY: Use of gamma-ray spectrometry for uranium isotopic analysis of environmental samples. Rom Journ Phys 2010, 55(1–2):69-74.Google Scholar
- Gilmore G, Hemingway JD: Practical Gamma Spectrometry. John Wiley and Sons, NY, NY; 1995.Google Scholar
- Google Earth: Google Earth software programmeme Retrieved from the internet based software Google Earth version 126.96.36.19901. 2012. on 26th January, 2012Google Scholar
- Gurib-Fakim A, Kasilo OMJ: African medicinal plants through an African herbal pharmacopoeia The African health monitor, African traditional medicine day. Special issue 2010, 14: 64-77.Google Scholar
- Haq I: Safety of medicinal plants Review Article Pakistan. J Med Res 2004., 43(No. 4):
- HBPI: Food high in Potassium High Blood Pressure Information. 2012. Retrieved March 29, 2012 from the World Wide Web: http://www.highbloodpressureinfo.org/food-high-in-potassium.html Google Scholar
- HPS: Radiation risk in perspective, position statement of the health physics society Health physics society. 2004. Retrieved on December 17, 2011 from the World Wide Web: http://www.hps.org/documents/radiationrisk.pdf Google Scholar
- IAEA: Extent of environmental contamination by naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) and technological options for mitigation Technical Repost Series No. 419. International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna; 2003.Google Scholar
- IAEA: Classification of soil systems on the basis of transfer factors of radionuclides from soil to reference plants IAEA-TECDOC 1497. IAEA, Vienna; 2006.Google Scholar
- ICRP Internal commission on radiological protection ICRP publication 60 Annals of the ICRP 21(1–3). In 1990 recommendations of the international commission on radiological protection. Pergamon press, oxford; 1991.Google Scholar
- ICRP: Biological and epidemiological information on health risks attributable to ionising radiation: a summary of judgments for the purposes of radiological protection of humans International Commission on Radiological Protection committee 1 Task Group report: c1 foundation document (fd-c-1). Pergamon press, Oxford; 2005.Google Scholar
- INFOSAN: Information on nuclear accidents and radioactive contamination of foods International Food Safety Authorities Network. World Health Organization (WHO), Geneva; 2011.Google Scholar
- Jevremovic M, Lazarevic N, Pavlovic S, Orlic M: Radionuclide concentrations in samples of medicinal herbs and effective dose from ingestion of 137Cs and natural radionuclides in herbal tea products from. Serbian market Isotopes Environ Health Studies 2011, 47(1):87-92. 10.1080/10256016.2011.556723View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kamboj VP: Herbal medicine. Curr Sci 2000, 78(1–10):35-51.Google Scholar
- Kessaratikoon P, Awaekechi S: Natural radioactivity measurement in soil samples collected from municipal area of Hat Yai district in Songkhla province, Thailand. KMITL Sci J Section A 2008, 8(2):52-58.Google Scholar
- Miah FK, Roy S, Touhiduzzaman N, Alan B: Distribution of radionuclides in soil samples in an around. Dhaka city Appl Radiat Isot 1998, 49(1–2):133-137.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Mukhammedov S, Tillaeva K: Natural. Radioac some med plants J Nucl Radiat Physics 2005, 1(1):73-76.Google Scholar
- Olatunde MO, Gbadebo AI, Funmi GOO, Olusegun S: Natural activity concentration and assessment of radiological dose equivalents in medicinal plants around oil and gas facilities in Ughelli and environs. Nigeria Environ Nat Resour Res 2011, 1(1):201-206. 10.5539/enrr.v1n1p201Google Scholar
- Oresengun MO, Decker KM, Sanderson CG: Determination of Self Absorption Correction by Computation in routine Gamma-ray Spectrometry for Typical Environmental Samples. J Radioact Radiochem 1993, 4: 38-45.Google Scholar
- Owusu–Afriyie G: Conserving medicinal plants in Ghana. Current issue: Traditional plants ICT update Issue no. 26. 2005. Retrieved October 11, 2011 from the World Wide Web: http://ictupdate.cta.int/en/content/view/full/787 Google Scholar
- Scheibel V, Appoloni CR: Survey of natural radioactivity levels in Iles paraguariensis (St. Hil.) by. Gamma-ray spectrom Braz Archives Biology Technology 2007, 50(5):901-904.Google Scholar
- Serfor-Armah Y, Akaho EHK, Nyarko BJB, Kyere AWK, Oppon-Boachie K: Application of instrumental neutron activation analysis to plant medicine in Ghana. A rev J Radioanalytical Nuclear Chem 2003, 257(1):125-128. 10.1023/A:1024761713676View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Serfor-Armah Y, Nyarko BJB, Akaho EHK, Kyere AWK, Osae S, Oppon-Boachie K, Osae EK: Activation analysis of some essential elements in five medicinal plants used in. Ghana J Radioanalytical Nucl Chem 2001, 250(1):173-176. 10.1023/A:1013211819951View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Tahir SNA, Alaamer AS: Determination of natural radioactivity in rock salt and radiation doses due to its ingestion Journal of Radiological Protection. Vol 2008, 28: 233-236.Google Scholar
- Tahir SNA, Alaamer AS: Concentrations of natural radionuclides in municipal supply drinking water and evaluation of radiological hazards Environmental Forensics. Vol 2009, 10: 1-6.Google Scholar
- Tahir SNA, Alaamer AS, Ayub M, Khan MZ: Radiometric Analysis of Samples of Domestic Fish Species and Radiological Implications Health Physics. Vol 2010, 98: 741-744.Google Scholar
- UNSCEAR: Sources and effects of ionising radiation United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation. United Nations, New York; 1988.Google Scholar
- UNSCEAR: Sources and effects of ionising radiation United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation. United Nations, New York; 2000.Google Scholar
- WHO: Progress report by the director general, document No. A44/20, 22. World Health Organisation, Geneva; 1991.Google Scholar
- WHO: Regulatory situation of herbal medicine: A worldwide review. World Health Organisation, Geneva; 1998.Google Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.