Effect of transient expression of fluorescent protein probes in synovial and myoblast cell lines
© Shibasaki et al.; licensee Springer. 2012
Received: 28 August 2012
Accepted: 19 October 2012
Published: 22 October 2012
Here, we investigate the appropriate fluorescent proteins for use in the culture of synovial MH7A and myoblast C2C12 cells. Fluorescent signal intensities of 3 different fluorescent proteins were examined in these cell lines. The fluorescent intensity of transiently expressed AcGFP, DsRed, and mStrawberry were examined in these cell lines, and the influence of the amount of plasmid used on transfection efficiency and cell viability were investigated.
KeywordsC2C12 cell Cell viability Fluorescent protein MH7A cell Transfection
Several types of tags have been used for analyses of the expression of a gene of interest or localization of proteins under investigation. Since the 1990s, green fluorescent protein (GFP) has been used to analyze the expression of genes of interest or the localization of such proteins. Jellyfish Aequorea victoria GFP and its variants are the most popular and representative fluorescent proteins for use as molecular probes in molecular and cell biology (Cubitt et al. 1995). Furthermore, these proteins are used to monitor bio-production in living cells and for bio-sensing of environmental conditions (Shibasaki et al. 2001). Recently, several fluorescent proteins other than GFP have also been used in biological studies (Brandariz-Nuñez et al. 2011, Piatkevich and Verkhusha, 2011).
In mammalian cell lines, there are 2 typical ways for introducing a gene of interest into host cells. One involves the integration of the gene of interest into the genome for stable expression, and the other is its introduction into host cells as a plasmid for transient expression. Usually, a single copy of the gene of interest is maintained in the host cells when the gene in integrated into the genome. In contrast, plasmids used for transient expression are typically present in multiple copies. Production of the foreign protein from a multi-copy plasmid is thought to affect metabolic load in the host cells (Khoo et al. 2007), which could result in different effects in different cell lines. Therefore, the impact of using different fluorescent proteins as molecular probes should also be examined in various kinds of host cells.
In this study, we chose 2 types of mammalian cells, MH7A synovial cells and C2C12 mouse myoblast cells, to evaluate differences in fluorescent protein production. These cell lines have frequently been used as model systems for the investigation of physiological or molecular biological studies. The MH7A cell line has been used to investigate cell proliferation, inflammation, or signaling pathways in synovial cells (Kitano et al. 2006). It has also been used to evaluate the effect of novel immunosuppressants for rheumatoid arthritis. The C2C12 cell line is a useful model for studying the differentiation of non-muscle cells into skeletal muscle cells. Treatment of these cells with bone morphogenic protein 2 causes a shift in the differentiation pathway from myoblast cells to osteoblast cells (Katagiri et al. 1994).
We chose 3 fluorescent proteins of different colors, viz., AcGFP, DsRed-monomer, and mStrawberry, for investigation in these cell lines. AcGFP is a green fluorescent protein derived from Aequorea coerulescens and has silent mutations that create an open reading frame almost entirely composed of preferred human codons (Haas et al. 1996). The DsRed-monomer is a monomeric mutant derived from the tetrameric Discosoma spp. red fluorescent protein (Matz et al. 1999). mStrawberry is a mutant protein derived from DsRed (Shaner et al. 2004).
We constructed 3 constructs to express these fluorescent proteins, using pcDNA3.1(+) as plasmid backbone. Fluorescence was observed by fluorescence microscopy and quantified using a conventional micro-plate reader. Fluorescence intensity of each of the proteins changed during cultivation of the transfected cells in a manner that differed depending on protein/host cell combinations. In addition, the effect of the amount of plasmid DNA and the effect of each fluorescent protein on cell viability was also examined.
Results and discussion
Plasmids and transfection of cell lines
We constructed 3 plasmids expressing fluorescent proteins of different colors under the control of the CMV promoter, i.e., pcDNA-AGF (AcGFP), pcDNA-DRD (DsRed), and pcDNA-STB (mStrawberry). After verifying the DNA sequence and purity of plasmids, they were introduced into synovial MH7A or myoblast C2C12 cells by lipofection reagent. To investigate whether 0.8 μg, the amount of plasmid DNA typically used to transfect cells in 500 μl of medium in a single well of a 24-well plate (Colapinto et al. 2006, Emonet et al. 2009), we decreased the amount of plasmid DNA for all transfections from 0.8 μg to 0.1 μg in the same volume of medium.
Observations of fluorescent protein-expressing cells
In both MH7A and C2C12 transfected cells, AcGFP and mStrawberry was clearly observed under fluorescence microscopy. Codon-optimization of these sequences for mammalian host cells (Haas et al. 1996) possibly improved the expression of these proteins in both MH7A cell and C2C12 cells. We also examined the effect of using 1.6 μg of DNAs in transfection, compared to using 0.8 μg; however, this did not lead to a marked increase in fluorescence (data not shown).
We also attempted to evaluate protein expression more quantitatively, rather than merely comparing observation of fluorescence by microscopy. The fluorescence intensity of the transfected cells was measured using a multi-well microplate reader with appropriate wavelength settings at room temperature.
As for the amount of plasmid used in transfection of both cell lines, a greater amount results in higher fluorescence intensity, except for expression of AcGFP in MH7A cells (Figure 2A). In MH7A cells expressing AcGFP, higher fluorescence intensities were observed on transfected cells with 0.1 μg plasmid than cells with 0.8 μg plasmid at 72 h and 96 h. On the other hand, at 24 h after transfection of C2C12 cells, cells transfected with 0.8 μg plasmid of AcGFP or mStrawberry have a 2.5-fold and 2.2-fold higher fluorescence intensity, respectively, than that of C2C12 cells transfected with 0.1 μg plasmid (Figure 2B and 21F). Thus, the fluorescence intensity is not in proportion to the amount of DNA used in transfection, precisely.
One obvious difference between the 2 cell lines was their growth rate. C2C12 cells grew around 1.5–2 times faster than MH7A cells. No toxicity of transfection was confirmed for either cell line; however, there may be differences in sensitivity to the transfection reagent, as seen when Figure 3C, E, and G are compared to Figure 3D, F, and H. Such a comparison indicates that the MH7A cell line may be more sensitive to lipofection reagent than the C2C12 cell line.
We have shown that AcGFP and mStrawberry are able to function as practical fluorescent probes in MH7A and C2C12 cell lines. mStrawberry is mostly used as a fluorescence marker in a transient expression system, using pcDNA3.1(+). Of the 3 kinds of fluorescent protein investigated, no plasmid was toxic to either cell line. However, sensitivity to lipofection reagents appears to be different; therefore, C2C12 cells may be preferable to MH7A cells when using this transfection system.
Human MH7A synovial cells isolated from the intra-articular soft tissue of the knee joint of RA patients were obtained from Riken (Saitama, Japan). MH7A is a cell line established by transfection with the SV40 T antigen (Miyazawa et al. 1998). MH7A cells were cultured in RPMI 1640 (Sigma, St. Louis, MO) containing 10% heat-inactivated fetal bovine serum (FBS; Whittaker, Walkersville, MD), 100 units/ml of penicillin, and 100 μg/ml of streptomycin (Invitrogen, San Diego, CA).
The C2C12 mouse myoblast cell line was purchased from American Type Culture Collection (Manassas, VA, USA) (13). C2C12 cells were grown in Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle’s Medium (DMEM) (Sigma, St. Louis, MO, USA) containing 10% fetal calf serum (FCS) and antibiotics (100 units/ml penicillin, and 100 μg/ml streptomycin).
Both cell types were cultured in 24-well plates in a CO2 incubator EX9100 (Wakenbtech, Kyoto, Japan) in an atmosphere of 5% CO2 at 37°C.
Genes encoding each of 3 different fluorescent proteins of different colors, viz., AcGFP, DsRed, and Strawberry were individually introduced into the multi-cloning site of pcDNA3.1(+) (Invitrogen). The AcGFP-encoding DNA fragment was excised from the plasmid pAcGFP (Clontech, CA, USA) using restriction enzymes Bam HI and Eco RI. The DsRed- and the Strawberry-encoding fragments were similarly obtained from the plasmids pDsRed-monomer and pmStrawberry (Clontech), respectively. These fragments were inserted into an expression vector for mammalian hosts, the pcDNA3.1(+). The resulting plasmids were named pcDNA-AGF (AcGFP), pcDNA-DRD (DsRed), and pcDNA-STB (mStrawberry). The nucleotide sequences of these constructs were confirmed by sequencing using an ABI PRISM 3100 Genetic Analyzer (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA, USA).
Constructs were introduced into mammalian cells for transient expression using a liposome reagent (Felgner and Ringold 1989), following the manufacturer’s instructions for the use of lipofectamine 2000 (Invitrogen). Cells used for transfection were seeded at 1.7 × 105 cells/well in a 24-well plate and cultured for 1 day before transfection.
Microscopic observation was performed using a fluorescence microscope, BIOREVO BZ-9000 (Keyence, Osaka, Japan), with a band path filter set, viz., BZ filter GFP-BP (470/40, 535/50 nm) for green fluorescence, or BZ filter TRITC (540/25, 605/55 nm) for red fluorescence observations.
Before analyses of the fluorescent intensity of cultured cells, the medium in each well was substituted with 500 ml of phosphate buffered saline (PBS). Fluorescence units were measured using the SpectraMax M2 Microplate Reader (Molecular Device, CA, USA), with excitation/emission wave length set at 475 nm/505 nm, 556 nm/586 nm, and 574 nm/596 nm for AcGFP, DsRed, and mStrawberry, respectively. Each measurement was performed at room temperature, and fluorescence intensity was recorded with SoftMax Pro5.2 software. After measurement, the PBS was substituted with medium for further cultivation of the cells.
Determination of cell viability
Cell viability was determined using a Cell Counting Kit-8 (Dojindo, Kumamoto, Japan), in which 2-(2-methoxy-4-nitrophenyl)-3-(4-nitrophenyl)-5-(2,4-disulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium monosodium salt (WST-8) was used as a substrate (Ohuchida et al. 2004). Absorbance was measured using a SpectraMax M2 Microplate Reader (Molecular Device) at 450 nm.
This work was partially supported by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan, a Grant-in-Aid for Young Scientists (B).
- Brandariz-Nuñez A, Otero-Romero I, Benavente J, Martinez-Costas JM: IC-tagged proteins are able to interact with each other and perform complex reactions when integrated into muNS-derived inclusions. J Biotechnol 2011, 155: 284-286. 10.1016/j.jbiotec.2011.07.010View Article
- Colapinto M, Mila S, Giraudo S, Stefanazzi P, Molteni M, Rossetti C, Bergamasco B, Lopiano L, Fasano M: Alpha-Synuclein protects SH-SY5Y cells from dopamine toxicity. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2006, 349: 1294-1300. 10.1016/j.bbrc.2006.08.163View Article
- Cubitt AB, Heim R, Adams SR, Boyd AE, Gross LA, Tsien RY: Understanding, improving and using green fluorescent proteins. Trends Biochem Sci 1995, 20: 448-455. 10.1016/S0968-0004(00)89099-4View Article
- Emonet SF, Garidou L, McGavern DB, de la Torre JC: Generation of recombinant lymphocytic choriomeningitis viruses with trisegmented genomes stably expressing two additional genes of interest. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2009, 106: 3473-3478. 10.1073/pnas.0900088106View Article
- Felgner PL, Ringold GM: Cationic Liposome-Mediated Transfection. Nature 1989, 337: 387-388. 10.1038/337387a0View Article
- Haas J, Park EC, Seed B: Codon usage limitation in the expression of HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein. Curr Biol 1996, 6: 315-324. 10.1016/S0960-9822(02)00482-7View Article
- Katagiri T, Yamaguchi A, Komaki M, Abe E, Takahashi N, Ikeda T, Rosen V, Wozney JM, Sehara AF, Suda T: Bone morphogenetic protein-2 converts the differentiation pathway of C2C12 myoblasts into the osteoblast lineage. J Cell Biol 1994, 12: 1755-1766.View Article
- Khoo SH, Falciani F, Al-Rubeai M: A genome-wide transcriptional analysis of producer and non-producer NS0 myeloma cell lines. Biotechnol Appl Biochem 2007, 47: 85-95. 10.1042/BA20060185View Article
- Kitano M, Hla T, Sekiguchi M, Kawahito Y, Yoshimura R, Miyazawa K, Iwasaki T, Sano H, Saba JD, Tam YY: Sphingosine 1-phosphate/sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 1 signaling in rheumatoid synovium: regulation of synovial proliferation and inflammatory gene expression. Arthritis Rheum 2006, 54: 742-753. 10.1002/art.21668View Article
- Matz MV, Fradkov AF, Labas YA, Savitsky AP, Zaraisky AG, Markelov ML, Luciano SA: Fluorescent proteins from nonbioluminescent Anthozoa species. Nat Biotechnol 1999, 17: 969-973. 10.1038/13657View Article
- Miyazawa K, Mori A, Okudaira H: Establishment and Characterization of a Novel Human Rheumatoid Fibroblast-Like Synoviocyte Line, MH7A, Immortalized with SV40 T Antigen. J Biochem 1998, 124: 1153-1162. 10.1093/oxfordjournals.jbchem.a022233View Article
- Nakagawa I, Nakata M, Kawabata S, Hamada S: Regulated expression of the Shiga toxin B gene induces apoptosis in mammalian fibroblastic cells. Mol Microbiol 1999, 33: 1190-1199.View Article
- Ohuchida T, Okamoto K, Akahane K, Higure A, Todoroki H, Abe Y, Kikuchi M, Ikematsu S, Muramatsu T, Itoh H: Midkine protects hepatocellular carcinoma cells against TRAIL-mediated apoptosis through down-regulation of caspase-3 activity. Cancer 2004, 100: 2430-2436. 10.1002/cncr.20266View Article
- Piatkevich KD, Verkhusha VV: Guide to red fluorescent proteins and biosensors for flow cytometry. Methods Cell Biol 2011, 102: 431-461.View Article
- Shaner NC, Campbell RE, Steinbach PA, Giepmans BN, Palmer AE, Tsien RY: Improved monomeric red, orange and yellow fluorescent proteins derived from Discosoma sp. red fluorescent protein. Nat Biotechnol 2004, 22: 1567-1572. 10.1038/nbt1037View Article
- Shibasaki S, Ueda M, Iizuka T, Hirayama M, Ikeda Y, Kamasawa N, Osumi M, Tanaka A: Quantitative evaluation of the enhanced green fluorescent protein displayed on the cell surface of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by fluorometric and confocal laser scanning microscopic analyses. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2001, 55: 471-475. 10.1007/s002530000539View Article
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.